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Future MD Canada

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...thinking about applying to medical school in Canada?

...a current medical student or resident in a Canadian faculty of medicine?

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If you answered ‘yes’ to one of the above questions, the Future MD Canada web tool will be of interest to you. This comprehensive tool features a Q&A format, glossary, and cross-referencing to provide factual responses to all of your questions. A broad range of topics address questions related to admissions, costs and funding, international medical graduates, earnings and residency and practice. Click on the link below to enter and start researching!

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How many residency positions are there in each specialty?

The Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) website is an excellent source of data on residency positions in Canada. CaRMS data, which are updated annually, include detailed data tables on residency position in each specialty https://www.carms.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/2018-carms-forum.pdf. Table 12 shows the quota offered to Canadian medical graduate applicants by discipline and Table 14, the dedicated quota offered to international medical graduate applicants by discipline.

Another useful source of current data on this topic can be found in Table G-1 of the CAPER  Annual Census  which shows first year Canadian citizen/permanent resident trainees by type of program and faculty of training.

For more information on how the match process works, see the CaRMS website The Match - how it works.

What resources are available to help students decide what specialties to consider?

There are many resources available to help students think through their decision about which specialty to pursue. The following are some suggestions:

  • Visit student affairs offices to discuss options and explore relevant resources
  • Check out the 38 Canadian Specialty Profiles on the Canadian Medical Association website
  • Review the information on specialties on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website: here
  • Find out more about family medicine as a career through family medicine interest groupsstudent-run groups at each university that organize clinical skills sessions and information seminars on the subject—on the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website
  • Check out the Association of American Medical Colleges Careers in Medicine tool
  • Talk to professors, teachers, preceptors, and mentors about what it is like to be a specialist
  • Shadow faculty members

 

What tools are available to help medical students choose their electives?
What are the current practice patterns in various disciplines and what can be expected in terms of work setting, hours, case load, and patients?

Choosing a discipline of practice can be challenging. Since there are many factors to consider in making the best possible decision, starting early is important. There will be many opportunities over the course of a learner’s training to discuss work expectations with experienced practitioners from various practice settings. Many schools also offer integrated mentorship programs to support learners in their decision-making process.  

Every faculty of medicine has a student affairs office that offers career counselling and access to a wide variety of useful resources—both in person and online.

For more information by specialty:

  • The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has a section of its website devoted to information on specialty training requirements, training objectives, the accreditation processes, and more. The portal is categorized by specialty, subspecialty, special programs, and the areas of focused competence (AFC) diploma.
  • The Canadian Medical Association has published profiles of 38 Canadian specialties, each of which provides an overview of setting, income, and satisfaction levels by practice type.
  • The Association of American Medical Colleges publishes its Careers in Medicine newsletter four times a year. The Choices newsletter provides pertinent information about specialty choice, getting into residency, and other important guidance related to medical student career-planning.  

Most specialties have their own college. Consult their websites for more information.

For more information about family medicine:

The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) offers a variety of information about the pathways to becoming a family physician, resources for medical students interested in family medicine, and more.

The CFPC has developed a Fact Sheet for Prospective Family Physicians about the field of family medicine that include answers about this field, including salary, training, hours, income and more. 

How do academic and community-based careers differ? What specialties require an academic setting?

The development of distributed medical education is making it harder to differentiate between academic careers and community-based careers, as teaching settings are expanding beyond classrooms and university teaching hospitals.  

Today, many physicians invest time contributing to medical education. General practitioners/family physicians working in community practices in rural and remote regions of our country provide significant contributions to medical education training. Physicians may or may not receive remuneration for their teaching activities.

Some specialties are, by necessity, limited to specific locations such as tertiary care centres. These fields of practice also require an academic career that contains components of research and education. Other specialties, such as family medicine or paediatrics, allow for a wider set of options (e.g., rural, remote, city centres) and, as such, offer more flexibility in terms of an academic or community-based career.

For more information about requirements and expectations of various specialties:

    • Academic career: A medical career that comprises multiple roles, such as clinical care, teaching, research, and administrative work. Academic careers were traditionally based in university teaching hospitals. Today, however, many are also community-based.

    • Community-based career: An independent physician practice in a community setting in which the physician may be affiliated to a medical school and involved in teaching and/or research activities.

    • Tertiary care centre: A healthcare centre affiliated with a medical school that provides highly specialized care to patients.

    Beyond residency training, what other learning opportunities exist?

    Sub-specialty residencies are programs of additional medical training undertaken after an initial “core” residency has been completed in a specialty accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). 

    Subspecialty residency training supports sub-specialization in a particular specialty. Subspecialty residents can sometimes practise as physicians in the specialty in which they completed their core (initial)residency (e.g., psychiatry) but cannot practise without supervision in their subspecialty (e.g., child and adolescent psychiatry). This is not always possible, as sometimes training in the core specialty can be double counted towards both the core specialty and sub-specialty training requirements.   Subspecialty residency training programs generally last anywhere from 1 to 3 years.

    Diploma programs are a different type of additional accredited learning opportunity available after core or subspecialty residency training. The RCPSC recognizes an increasing number of Areas of Focused Competence (AFC) programs, also known as Diploma Programs.  These disciplines do not meet the criteria for a subspecialty residency but are accredited by the RCPSC following successful submission of an evaluated portfolio of work in a recognized discipline. An example of this type of training is interventional cardiac catheterization, which can only be undertaken after completion of a core residency in internal medicine and a subspecialty residency in cardiology. AFC programs usually take between 1 and 2 years to complete.

    Sub-specialty residencies and AFC programs are sometimes referred to (incorrectly) as “fellowships.”  In most institutions, true fellowships are unaccredited learning opportunities that allow trainees to gain expertise in a very specialized area of practice. An example would be such areas as “hand surgery”, which might be undertaken by those with core training in Plastic Surgery or Orthopedics. Fellowships are often delivered using an apprenticeship model of training where the trainee is paired with a single of small number of experts in a particular field.  These additional years of “fellowship training” are not to be confused with membership in the RCPSC, which carries the designation “Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada” or “Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada.”

    The specialty of family medicine has additional training that may be offered to residents after completion of residency. These “enhanced skills programs” are accredited under the departments of family medicine at each university. There are national standards for five enhanced skills programs: Emergency Medicine, Palliative Care, Family Practice Anaesthesia, Health Care of the Elderly, and Clinician Scholar. These are known as category 1 programs and are based on a 1 year expected program of study.  Graduates of these programs receive attestation of their completion. Family physicians who complete additional training in any of 5 areas: care of the elderly, palliative care, emergency medicine, family practice anesthesia, and sports medicine will be eligible to receive a Certificate of Added Competency (CAC). Currently, there are 3 ways to achieve a CAC: through completion of extra residency training (a fellowship); through practice experience and professional development; or by acquiring a Certificate of Special Competence in Emergency Medicine. Physicians who complete the CFPC Certification in emergency medicine can choose to use the CFPC(EM) designation, or apply for the CAC in emergency medicine.

    Other learning opportunities may be offered at medical schools to assist recent family medicine graduates and family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community (e.g., Addiction Medicine, Chronic Disease). These learning opportunities are also accredited under the umbrella of enhanced skills programs, to ensure they meet educational standards.  However, the range of skills that may be sought is more broad and flexible.  These programs are known as category 2 programs.

    Fellowships are not necessary for all fields of practice, but some require additional training years to ensure that physicians provide the highest quality and most adapted care to their patients. The more specialized a physician is, the more he or she is limited in terms of practice settings. Highly specialized physicians are often affiliated with teaching hospitals and lead academic careers in which research is an important component of their practice.

    To find out more about RCPSC subspecialty residencies and areas of focused competence, visit the College’s web portal.
    To learn more about enhanced skills programs in family medicine, visit the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website, which describes its accreditation standards for these programs. The Canadian Medical Association website provides a general overview of 38 specialties at Canada. Please note, this work is currently being updated and is not a comprehensive list of specialties in Canada.
     

    • Fellowship: Additional medical training undertaken following the completion of residency in order to become subspecialized in a medical discipline. Fellowship training may be accredited (diploma program) or non-accredited.

    • Enhanced skills programs: Additional accredited training offered to family medicine graduates or family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community.

    What are the practice opportunities per specialty and how would a finishing resident find them?

    It is challenging to obtain accurate information on available practice opportunities in the medical field, as not all are posted and those that exist in academic settings may be hard to identify. At this time, there is no pan-Canadian tool that examines trends in practice opportunities by specialty.

    Since it is the responsibility of individual learners to identify learning and professional opportunities, they should begin researching them as early as possible in the medical education process—before they consider choosing a specialty.

    Learners will benefit throughout their careers from developing a solid network of health professional colleagues, faculty representatives, and classmates. Upon completion of their medical residency programs (or even before), learners are advised to talk to their contacts
    about possible job opportunities and research job listings on various websites. Those interested in an academic career should contact Canadian medical schools to explore career pathways and opportunities.

    The following are useful links to assist students in searching for practice opportunities:

    National websites:

    Canadian Medical Association Career Centre

    Healthcare Careers Opportunities

     

    Provincial and territorial websites:

    Newfoundland & Labrador: Practice Newfoundland Labrador

    Nova Scotia: Physicians Nova Scotia

    Brunswick: Careers in Health Care in New Brunswick

    Prince Edward Island:  Healthcare career Opportunities

    Quebec: Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec.

    Ontario: Health Force Ontario

    Manitoba: MB Healthcare Providers Network

    Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Medical Association

    Alberta: Health Workforce for Alberta[RH1]

    British Columbia: Health Match BC

    Northwest Territories: Practice North

    Nunavut: General Practice Physicians in Nunavut

    Yukon: Yukon MD

    For more information about transitioning into practice:

    What has been the trend in the number of residency positions in recent years?

    The Canadian Post M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) is an excellent source of evidence on trends in residency. As shown in the chart below, there was a 100% increase in the number of PGY-1 trainees in Canada between 2000-01 and 2017-18 to current levels.

    Post MD training by where MD received

     

    First Year Trainees who are Canadian citizens/Permanent residents
    YEAR OF POST-M.D. TRAINING
    BY
    WHERE THE M.D. DEGREE WAS RECEIVED

    Training Year

    Country Where the M.D. Degree was Received

    Canada

    Outside Canada

    Total

    Count

    Row %

    Count

    Row %

    Count

    Row %

    2014-15

    2762

    86.2%

    444

    13.8%

    3206

    100.0%

    2015-16

    2765

    86.6%

    426

    13.4%

    3191

    100.0%

    2016-17

    2798

    87.0%

    417

    13.0%

    3215

    100.0%

    2017-18

    2778

    86.8%

    423

    13.2%

    3201

    100.0%

    Total

    38790

    86.0%

    6310

    14.0%

    45100

    100.0%

     

    The data tables in CAPER’s 2017-18 Census provide an overview of current information on residency across Canada.  Table B1 illustrates the number of residents by field of post-Doctor of Medicine (MD) training and rank (e.g., PGY-1, -2) and Table A1 summarizes the number of residents by field of post-MD training and faculty of medicine.

    The postgraduate medical education (PGME) departments in each of the 17 Canadian faculties of medicine also have information on residency positions and recent trends. It must be noted that trends have no predictive value with regard to future residency positions.

    What is a “return for service” agreement?

    Return of service (ROS) is part of a package of strategies designed to attract physicians to Province’s underserviced communities. you will be sent an agreement describing the terms and conditions associated with the position you have been offered.

    Return of Service agreements provide funding to medical trainees in exchange for their commitment to practice in a designated geographic area for a period of time after completion of their training. These agreements provide different types of monetary incentives and may target undergraduate students, postgraduate trainees, or working physicians. The incentives are often given in the form of bursaries, grants, loan forgiveness, and scholarships. Many ROS programs offer a “buy-out option” allowing borrowers to repay their bursary instead of fulfilling their service commitment.

    Table 1. Comparison of current ROS programs and their terms, by province and territory

     

    NL

    PEI

    NS

    NB

    QC

    ON

    MB

    SK

    AB

    BC

    NT

    NU

    Year of Current Program Origin

    2002

    2000

    2000

    2000

    2001

    2000

    2001

    2000

    2005

    2001

    2000

    2003

    Bursary

     

     

     

     

     

    Grant

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Loan forgiveness

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Scholarship

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Tuition reimbursement

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Almost all provinces and territories offer – ROS agreements to recruit and retain physicians in underserved areas. ROS agreements may also be put in place if a jurisdiction is supporting or subsidizing an IMG’s assessment process. Although not formally considered an ROS agreement, the Canadian Armed Forces have a similar program. 

    Table 2. Canadian ROS values and return requirements according to province and recipient type 2011/12

    Province

    Recipient Type

    Funding Value per Year

    Service Required (months)

    Service Location Requirements

    NL

    UG4, FM, SP, P

    $25,000

    12

    Area of need (entire province)

    NL

    TF

    Salary/Tuition

    12

    Area of need (entire province)

    PEI

    FM

    $15,000

    12

    Vacancy of greatest need

    PEI

    SP

    $20,000

    12

    Vacancy of greatest need

    NS

    P

    $15,000

    12 + 6*

    Area of need

    NB

    UG3-4

    $6,000

    12

    Rural Health Authority in need

    NB

    FM

    $12,500

    18

    St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

    $25,000

    18

    Outside St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

    NB

    SP

    $20,000

    18

    Rural Health Authority in need

    QC

    UG3-4

    $15,000

    12

    Area of need

    QC

    FM, SP

    $20,000

    12

    Area of need

    ON

    UG4, FM, SP

    $10,000

    12

    Underserved area or undersupplied specialty

    MBa

    UG1-4

    $7,000

    6

    Rural community

    MB

    UG1-4

    $12,000

    6

    Location directed by province

    MB

    UG3**

    $25,000

    12

    Rural community

    MB

    UG4**

    $15,000

    12

    Manitoba community

    MB

    UG4 (RNI)

    $25,000

    12

    Northern remote community – location directed by province

    MB

    FM Res

    $20,000

    12

    Within the province

    MB

    FM Res (NRFMS)

    $50,000

    24

    Northern remote community – location directed by province

    MB

    SP

    $20,000

    12

    Manitoba community

    SK

    UG2-4

    $15,000

    6

    Rural relief (locums)

    8

    Rural community

    12

    Regional centre

    SK

    FM, SP

    $25,000

    6

    Rural relief (locums)

    8

    Rural community

    12

    Regional centre

    AB

    UG1-4 (U of A)

    $11,540

    12

    FM: non-metro, non-regional community; SP: non-metro community

    AB

    UG1-3 (U of C)

    $14,384

    12

    BC

    MD

    33.3% prov. student loans

    12

    Publicly funded facility in underserved area

    NWT

    UG1-4

    $10,000

    6

    Within the territory

    NWT5

    UG1-3

    $13,333

    6

    Within the territory

    NWT

    FM, SP

    $15,000

    6

    Within the territory

    NWT5

    FM, SP

    $15,000

    6

    Within the territory

    NU

    UG1-4

    $25,000

    See FM or SP

    Within the territory

    NU

    FM

    $25.00

    3 years total

    Within the territory

    NU

    SP

    $25,000

    5 years total

    Within the territory

    RFS = Return for service; a Refers to an Aboriginal-specific program; 5 Refers to five-year medical school programs.

    UG = undergraduate, FM = family medicine resident, SP = specialist resident, P = psychiatry resident, MD = practising physician, RNI = Rural/Northern Initiative, NRFMS = Northern/Remote Family Medicine Residency Stream (NRFMS)

    * Physicians return 12 months of service for the first year of funding and 6 months' additional funding.

    ** Will be phased out after 2011–2012 year.

     

    For more information about RFS agreements, please consult the provincial websites listed below:

     

    How are physicians paid in Canada?

    The provincial and territorial governments of Canada are responsible for healthcare services provided within their jurisdiction, including the remuneration of physicians and other healthcare professionals. They work in collaboration with the Government of Canada to administer Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare – under the terms of the Canada Health Act.

    There are two primary methods by which physicians in Canada are paid:

    • Fee-for-service is an arrangement whereby the professional, acting as an independent and private contractor, is paid a set amount for each service provided. In 2015-16, 72% of all clinical payments to Canadian physicians were made using this method1.
    • Alternative clinical payment includes all payment arrangements other than fee-for-service. This method is growing in popularity among new physicians, having increased from 10.6% of total clinical payments in 1999-2000 to 28% in 2015-16. Examples of alternative clinical payment include the following2:
      • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.
      • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.
      • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.
      • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered that are particularly useful for preventive services.
      • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.
      • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and is adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.
      • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

     

    For more information about remuneration methods:

    A profile of physicians in Canada in 2016

    New in Practice Guide, Canadian Medical Association

    2014 Survey Results, National Physician Survey

    Canada’s Health Care System, Health Canada

    National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2017

    • Alternative clinical payments: Payment arrangements by methods other than fee-for-service. Some preferred methods include salaried, by capitation, and blended.

    • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.

    • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.

    • Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare: An insurance program managed by the federal, provincial, and territorial governments that is designed to ensure that all residents have reasonable access to medically necessary hospital and physician services on a prepaid basis. The provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the management, organization, and delivery of health services for their residents.

    • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.

    • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

    • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.

    • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered. They are particularly useful for preventive services.

    How much does a practicing physician earn?

    In 2015-2016, total clinical payments to physicians increased 3.4% over the previous year to $25.7 billion; this is the second-lowest increase in clinical payments since the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) began collecting aggregate alternative payment data in 1999. The average gross clinical payment per physician in 2015-2016 was $339,000; this number remained virtually unchanged from 2014-2015. This year, CIHI combined fee-for-service payment data with detailed alternative payment data and for the first time is able to report average gross clinical payments per physician by specialty for 8 provinces (Alberta and Saskatchewan excluded) and Yukon. The average gross clinical payment to family medicine physicians for these selected jurisdictions combined was just more than $275,000, while the average gross payment per medical specialist was $347,000 and that per surgical specialist was $461,000.

    For more information about remuneration by specialty: National Physician Database, 2015-2016 Data Release

    • Fee-for-service payment: A remuneration method whereby each clinical activity performed by a physician is associated with a billing code established by the provincial or territorial government.

    • Gross clinical payment: The total payment made to a physician, including fee-for-service and alternative payment methods.

    What are regional health authorities?

    Health regions or health authorities are a governance model used by Canada's provincial governments to administer and/or deliver public healthcare to all Canadian residents. Health care is designated a provincial responsibility under the separation of powers in Canada's federal system. Most health regions are organized along geographic boundaries, but some are organized along operational lines (check here). In several provinces, regional health authorities are residents’ employers.

    How much does a resident earn?

    Once learners graduate from the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree program and enter their first postgraduate year (PGY) or residency year (R), they start earning an annual salary. The amount of the salary is determined by the province in which the MD training was completed and its professional residents’ association. It increases with every additional year of residency training completed, as shown in the chart below.

    Amount paid to post-MD trainees in 2017

    Table5. Payment Scales for Post-MD Clinical Trainees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine by Rank and Province of Training.

    Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

    Province of Training

    Contract Period

    Current Remuneration Rates by Rank of Trainee

    Resident
    PGY 1

    Resident
    PGY 2

    Resident
    PGY 3

    Resident
    PGY 4

    Resident
    PGY 5

    Resident
    PGY 6

    Resident
    PGY 7

    Resident
    PGY 8

    Resident
    PGY 9

    Fellow

    Newfoundland & Labrador

    Jun 2016 - Jun 2017

    $60,795

    $65,718

    $70,175

    $74,823

    $79,860

    $85,248

    -

    -

    -

    $90,384

    Maritimes

    Jul 2014 - Jul 2018

    $62,324

    $67,371

    $71,940

    $76,705

    $81,869

    $87,392

    $92,657

    $98,923

    -

    -

    Québec*

    Effective April 1, 2015

    $44,552

    $48,889

    $53,913

    $58,912

    $62,910

    $66,069

    $69,375

    $72,841

    -

    -

    Ontario

    Jul 2017 - Jun 2018

    $57,967

    $64,088

    $69,032

    $74,205

    $79,523

    $84,042

    $87,268

    $92,075

    $96,882

    Variable

    Manitoba

    Jul 2014 - Jun 2018

    $57,187

    $64,105

    $68,763

    $74,053

    $79,343

    $84,634

    $89,819

    $96,833

    -

    $84,634

    Saskatchewan*

    Jul 2016 - Jun 2017

    $56,814

    $61,960

    $67,101

    $72,220

    $77,302

    $82,371

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Alberta*

    Jul 2010 - Jul 2015

    $55,073

    $61,066

    $65,849

    $70,637

    $76,624

    $81,411

    $88,037

    $95,207

    -

    Variable

    British Columbia

    Apr 2014 - Mar 2019

    $51,912

    $57,912

    $63,108

    $67,932

    $73,044

    $77,988

    $83,112

    -

    -

    -

     Information available as of September, 2017

    Chief residents and senior residents may receive additional stipends.

      * Currently under negotiation: Laval, Sherbrooke, Montreal, McGill, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Calgary

    • Postgraduate year (PGY): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine degree. PGY-1 is the first year of residency training and commonly starts around July 1st. Postgraduate year is synonymous with residency year.

    • Residency year (R): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. R-1 is the first year of residency training, which commonly starts around July 1st. Residency year is synonymous with postgraduate year.

    • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.

    Do medical students earn money?

    Clerkship stipends vary significantly among provinces. Some do not offer stipends to learners for clerkship, as it is viewed as an educational process rather than a job. Others offer students who undertake Doctor of Medicine (MD) degrees several hundred dollars per month for the duration of their clerkship. This may be in the form of quarterly lump-sum instalments in a student’s final year of medical school. In provinces that do offer clerkship stipends, the stipends are the same for all of the MD education programs in that jurisdiction. It is recommended that students contact the finance and awards office at their particular faculty of interest for more specific details about clerkship stipends.

    Table 7 of the Canadian Medical Education Statistics (CMES) publication (below) illustrates the Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian Faculties of Medicine for 2017/18:

    Table 7 Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian

    Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

     

     

    Province

    Faculty of Medicine

    Number of Clerkship Weeks 2

    Total
    Stipend 1

    Mandatory

    Electives

    Selectives

    Non-Clinical

    Total

    NL

    Memorial University

    48

    12

    12

    7

    79

    $3 150

    NS

    Dalhousie University

    36

    18

    12

    13

    79

    $2 800

    QC

    Laval, Université

    53

    18

    0

    15

    86

    DOES NOT APPLY

    Sherbrooke, Université de

    32

    16

    12

    6

    66

    Montréal, Université de

    52

    14

    6

    7

    79

    McGill University3

    52

    20

    0

    14

    86

    ON

    Ottawa, University of

    52

    18

    0

    10

    80

    $9 000

    Queen's University

    48

    16

    0

    12

    76

    Toronto, University of

    46.4

    13

    8

    9

    76.4

    McMaster University

    46

    17

    0

    6

    69

    Western University

    34

    0

    14

    1

    49

    Northern Ont. School of  Med.4

    30

    0

    0

    0

    30

    MB

    Manitoba, University of

    48

    14

    6

    14

    82

    $5 153

    SK

    Saskatchewan, University of

    48

    24

    0

    14

    86

    $8 269

    AB

    Alberta, University of

    57

    13

    0

    9

    79

    $4 2005

    Calgary, University of

    44

    12

    0

    0

    56

    BC

    British Columbia, Univ. of

    48

    31

    0

    10

    89

    $4 080

    Information available as of September, 2017.

    Notes:

      Mandatory = rotations in specific disciplines which must be completed by each student

      Electives = optional programs which are the choice of students provided the choices are approved

      Selectives = optional programs that may be chosen from a particular set of courses

      Non-clinical = the components vary from one faculty to another; examples are: CaRMS interviews,
                           orientation, examination review, ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) 

    1 Monthly payments are not always disbursed over the full duration of clerkship.

    2 The Faculties of Medicine may offer additional clerkship opportunities such as integrated clerkships which differ in clerkship lengths and educational requirements.

    3 Non-clinical rotations also include 48 weeks Physicianship: Professional and Healer 1 week of Public Health & Preventative Medicine, and 98 weeks Physicianship: Physician Apprentice (year 3 and year 4).

    4 Data reflects 3rd year Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship.  Electives and Selectives follow in 4th year, or occur in the weeks prior to the start of the clerkship.

    5 Stipend includes 12 monthly payments of $350.00 to a maximum of $4,200.00.

     

    How do provincial governments contribute to medical education?

    The costs of medical training in Canada are shared by the provincial governments, individual faculties, and learners. Although medical education subsidies vary by program and province, the provinces make a greater contribution to medical education than learners themselves.

    The provinces also offer a variety of student aid and assistance programs.

    At the post graduate (residency) level the provincial governments fully fund the positions.

    For more information about these programs—and about repayment options for medical students— visit the Student Affairs Office or Financial Aid Office in the appropriate faculty/jurisdiction.

     

    What kind of support is available from the Government of Canada?

    Many students count on government financial assistance to pay for their studies. Applying for government financial assistance could be to your advantage because being approved for this assistance is one of the eligibility criteria for some bursaries. In addition, the loans can remain interest free while you’re a full-time student and you aren’t required to make any payments on them as long as you’re a full-time student in an approved postsecondary program.

    For more information:

    Government assistance page at Universty of Ottawa

     

    Family medicine residents and family physicians who will be practising in rural or remote communities, including communities that provide health services to First Nations, Inuit, and Métis populations, may be eligible to have all or part of their loan forgiven through the  Canada Student Loan forgiveness for family doctors and nurses

    What scholarships are available?

    Scholarships, bursaries, and awards are an excellent way of minimizing educational debt, as they can help reduce the cost of tuition and other school-related expenses. All Canadian medical schools have their own financial aid offices, where learners can obtain a list of scholarships available to them.

    Many resources are available to help learners pay for their medical education. Every faculty of medicine in Canada has a student affairs office that offers financial counselling, see table below. These offices have access to a vast array of resources on a variety of topics of relevance to learners.

    Canadian Medical Schools

    Scholarships and Financial Aid Offices

    Memorial University of Newfoundland

    Office of Student Affairs – Financial Support

    http://www.med.mun.ca/StudentAffairs/Financial-Support.aspx

    Dalhousie University

    Scholarships, Bursaries, and Awards at the Office of Student Affairs

    http://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/student-affairs/financial-support/scholarships-bursaries-awards.html

    Money Matters

    http://www.dal.ca/admissions/money_matters.html

    Université Laval

    Bureau des bourses et l’aide financière (BBAF)

    https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/etudiants-actuels/bourses-et-aide-financiere

    Université de Sherbrooke

    Aide financière

    http://www.usherbrooke.ca/medecine/etudiants/vie-etudiante/bourses-et-aide-financiere/

    Université de Montréal

    Admissions and Program Guide, Scholarships and Funding

    http://med.umontreal.ca/la-communaute/les-etudiants/bureau-daide-aux-etudiants-et-residents-baer/

    McGill University

    Financial Aid

    http://www.mcgill.ca/medadmissions/prospective/financial-aid

    University of Ottawa

    Student Affairs Office, Financial Counselling

    http://www.med.uottawa.ca/Students/StudentAffairs/eng/financial_counselling.html

    Queen’s University

    Office of the University Registrar, Student Awards, Financial Assistance Programs

    http://queensu.ca/studentawards/home

    University of Toronto

    Faculty of Medicine, MD Program, Financial Aid

    http://applymd.utoronto.ca/financial-aid

    McMaster University

    Financial Aid Sources for Medical Students

    https://mdprogram.mcmaster.ca/md-program-admissions/tuition

    Western University

    Undergraduate Medical Education, Financial Matters

    https://www.schulich.uwo.ca/admissions/medicine/financialassistance

    Lakehead University/ Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

    Financial Aid

    https://www.nosm.ca/education/md-program/financial-assistance/

    University of Manitoba

    Student Loans, Bursaries, and Awards

    http://umanitoba.ca/student/fin_awards/

    University of Saskatchewan

    Student and Enrolment Services Division, Student Finance and Awards

    https://teaching.usask.ca/about/units/student-finance-and-awards.php

    University of Alberta

    Support and Wellness for Students and Residents, Financial Assistance

    https://www.ualberta.ca/medicine/programs/support-wellness/undergraduate/financial

    University of Calgary

    MD Program, Financial Aid

    http://www.ucalgary.ca/mdprogram/student-affairs/financial-aid

    University of British Columbia

    Financial Support at the Office of Student Affairs

    http://mdprogram.med.ubc.ca/student-resources/financial-support/

    Canada’s two associations representing medical students provide information on other sources of funding and financial advice on their websites:

    • Scholarships, bursaries, and awards: Grants or payments made to support a learner’s education, awarded on the basis of academic or other achievement. 

    What will it cost to become a doctor?

    The total cost of medical education in Canada may exceed $100,000, if education-related and non-education related expenses are taken into consideration. See  Costs and Funding: How much is tuition at a Canadian medical school? of the fees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine.

     According to AFMC Graduation Questionnaire 82.5% of Canadian medical graduates reported debt directly related to their medical education1.

    Canadian medical graduates reported an average debt of $84,172 for medical school expenses and $80,516 of non-education related debt2.

    Most learners accumulate debt while they are in medical school and pay it off over several years after they have completed their training and entered the workforce.

    • Non-education related debt: Debt related to credit cards, car loans, mortgages, and loans for elective and residency interview expenses.

    • medical school expenses: related to tuition, books, accommodation and other school-related expenses.

    How much is tuition at a Canadian medical school?

    Tuition fees are mandatory fees paid by students to help cover the cost of their education. Although they may appear high, they represent a small portion of the total cost of training to become a physician. The actual costs of medical training in Canada are shared by the provincial governments, medical schools, and students. Medical education subsidies paid by the provincial governments vary both by program and province.

    Tuition fees depend on a number of factors, including the program in which the learner is registered (e.g., MD, MD/PhD), the learner’s place of residence, and whether he or she is a Canadian citizen/permanent resident, foreign student, or foreign student above quota. Other compulsory fees also apply and vary widely from program to program and, in some cases, from campus to campus.

    According to the Canadian Medical Education Statistics (AFMC), the average tuition fee for Canadian Citizen/Permanent Residents for Canadian medical school is $16,798 per year, with Ontario having the highest provincial average at $27,304

    Table3, Tuition Fees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine: Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

    University / Province Regular Quota Tuition Fees  Other Compulsory Fees 3
    Cdn citizen / perm. resident Foreign 1
    Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
    Memorial  University $8,250 $30,000 $1,300 $630
    Dalhousie  University 4 $20,176 not applicable $1,197
    Laval,  Université Québec resident        $3,826 $4,144 $5,101 $2,869 $28,782 $31,208 $38,808 $21,223 $960
    Other $11,658 $12,645 $15,793 $8,883
    Sherbrooke, Université de 5 Québec resident        $4,503 $27,379 $1,060
    Other $11,608
    Montréal, Université de Québec resident        $3,507 $3,746 $5,499 $3,188 $26,824 $28,653 $42,064 $24,385 $1,142 $1,197
    Other $10,857 $11,598 $17,026 $9,870
    McGill  University 6 Québec resident        $5,021 $3,945 $4,065 $2,829 $38,407 $30,177 $31,091 $21,642 $2,208 $2,116 $2,117 $1,808
    Other $15,546 $12,215 $12,585 $8,760
    University of Ottawa $26,970 $26,970 $26,713 $26,459 not applicable $800 $720 $815
    Queen's University 7 $26,827 $26,747 not applicable $1,238 $1,158
    Toronto,  University of 7 St George $24,440 $72,840 $1,749 $1,749 $1,636 $1,634
    Mississauga $2,122 $2,122 $2,009 $1,864
    McMaster  University 8 $27,241   not applicable $960  
    Western University $25,876 not applicable $1,350
    Northern Ont. School of Medicine East Campus $24,600 not applicable $1,099
    West Campus $798 $602
    Manitoba,  University of $9,463 $8,110 not applicable $1,056
    Saskatchewan,  University of $16,642 not applicable $834
    Alberta,  University of $12,044 not applicable $943
    Calgary,  University of $15,012   $125,076 $1,170  
    British Columbia,  University of VFMP Site $17,755 not applicable $1,212 $75 $82
    IMP Site $0 $677 $75 $82
    NMP Site $0 $969 $75 $82
    SMP Site $0 $997 $75 $82

      Information available as of September, 2017

    1 Exemption from paying the foreign differential fee may be granted in some cases. These exemptions are defined by individual provincial government policies.

    2 These fees are determined based on individual contracts with foreign governments or educational institutions to provide medical education on a cost-recovery basis.

     

    3 Other compulsory fees may vary for visa students, for example, comprehensive health care insurance.

     

    4 International applicants are no longer accepted to the medical program.

     

    5 Residents of New Brunswick pay the same tuition fee as Québec residents as a result of an interprovincial government agreement.

     

    6 Health and Dental Insurance is charged once a year in the Fall term for Canadian students. Students from France who are eligible to pay tuition at the non-Quebec Canadian rate should deduct $145 for the SSMU Health Insurance, and add $993 for International Health Insurance. 

     

    7 International students pay a University Health Insurance Premium fee of $612 on top of the regular tuition fees.

     

    8 International students admitted above the regular quota pay a tuition fee of $95,000 and $960 other compulsory fees.

     

     

    • Foreign student: A student from outside Canada who is not a citizen or permanent resident of Canada and has come here for medical training.

    • Foreign student above quota: A medical student from outside Canada for whom no specific entry position has been allotted by a provincial government.

    • Medical education subsidies: Financial contributions given to medical schools by provincial governments to support the training of future physicians.

    • Other compulsory fees: Education-related costs (e.g., student union fees, professional fees, health services) charged by a school.

    How much does it cost to apply to medical school?

    Every Canadian medical school charges a non-refundable application fee to open an applicant file. This fee covers administrative costs related to the selection process and must be received by the school’s fixed deadline in order for the application to be considered. Some programs charge an additional service fee.

    In Ontario, where applications are centralized through the Ontario Medical Schools Application Service (OMSAS), there is a one-time service fee of $220 (CAD) charged by OMSAS that is added to the individual university application fee.

    The only other school that receives its applications from an external service is Memorial University of Newfoundland, which works through the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) Online Admissions Application Service. The service fee associated with this application is $155 (CAD) plus taxes.

    Additional fees:

    Application to any school that requires the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) involves a supplementary fee. In 2016, the MCAT regular examination fee was $305 (USD). AFMC Offers subsidized exam fess via their MCAT Fee Assistance Program:  MCAT Fee Assistance Program

    Francophone universities charge an additional Application Fees, interview fee and Other Service Fees.

    2018 Application Fees (CAD) by University of MD Training source: Admission Requirements Guide, available here: AFMC Admission Requirement Guide

    University / Province

    University Application Fees

    Other Service Fees

    Memorial University of Newfoundland

    $75

    $156.75

    Dalhousie University

    $70

     

    Université Laval

    $84

    $125

    Université de Sherbrooke

    $82

    $125

    Université de Montréal

    $94

    $125

    McGill University

    $154.56

     

    University of Ottawa

    $100

    $220 (Ontario has a one time fee to use their application portal)

     

     

    Queen’s University

    $125

    University of Toronto

    $125

    McMaster University

    $125

    Western University

    $125

    Lakehead University/Laurentian University

    (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

    $100

    University of Manitoba

    $100

     

    University of Saskatchewan

    $125

     

    University of Alberta

    Current and former U of A students

    $130

     

    New to U of Alberta

    $180

    University of Calgary

    $150

     

    University of British Columbia

     

    Residents of BC with BC transcripts

    $122

     

    Residents of BC with out-of-province transcripts

    $156

     

    Non-Residents of BC

    $180

     

     

    Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) Online Admissions Application Service: The online service through which application may be made for the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree at Memorial University of Newfoundland. (check here)

    How does a citizen or permanent resident of Canada who completed a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and post-MD training abroad obtain a licence to practice as a physician in Canada?

    Before returning to Canada, international medical graduates (IMGs) who have completed their Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and post-MD training abroad must complete several steps in order to obtain their licence to practise medicine in Canada.

    Before embarking on this process, IMGs are advised to contact the medical regulatory authority in the province or territory where they wish to practise in order to obtain information about the specific requirements they will have to meet.

    As part of the licensing process, IMGs must undergo assessment by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for assessing every medical school graduate who wishes to practise medicine in Canada. MCC-led assessments are carried out at more than 500 locations worldwide. For more information about this process, Consult MCC website for IMG assessment.

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada also offers an application process for recognition of training and certification within certain approved jurisdictions—including Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. For more information, visit the web site.

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada has established a number of routes to certification for specialists and subspecialists, including IMGs. Click here for details.

    Websites of provincial/territorial medical regulatory authorities:

     

    For more information about licensure to practise in Canada:

    • MCC-led assessments: IMGs must undergo assessment by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for assessing every medical school graduate who wishes to practise medicine in Canada. check here

       

    • Medical Regulatory Authorities: The bodies responsible for licensing physicians and monitoring medical practice to safeguard public interest. For a complete list, check here.

       

    How does a citizen or permanent resident of Canada who studied medicine abroad apply for residency training in Canada, and what are the chances of obtaining a position?

    Graduates of international medical schools , known as  Internation Medical Graduates or IMGs, including Canadian citizens  may apply to residency programs in Canada, but there are additional steps they must take and examinations they must pass in order to do so. It is important to note that those who complete MD training outside of the accredited programs in Canada and the US have no guarantee of securing a training position in Canada, let alone in their desired specialty or practice location.

    Learners who complete their Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of Canada and the United States and return to Canada to complete their residency training are considered international medical graduates (IMGs). Before applying for a residency match, they must go through several additional steps. Provinces have different requirements for IMGs wish to enter residency, so it is important to check the provincial regulations.

    NFLD&Labrador

    Practising Medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador

     

    Nova Scotia

    International Medical Graduates Residency in Nova Scotia

     

    Quebec

    IMG practice of medicine in Québec

     

    Ontario

    Qualifying to Practice Medicine in Ontario

     

    Manitoba

    IMG information on practicing in Manitoba
     

    Saskatchewan

    International medical graduates Practising in Saskatchewan

     

    Alberta

    Information for International Medical Graduates (IMGS) in Alberta

     

    B.C

    Resources and information for all International Medical Graduates in BC
     

    And/or

    https://imgbc.med.ubc.ca

    Obtaining a residency position can be the most challenging step for many IMGs. The proportion  of residency positions for IMGs compared to applications is consistently reported as being a major obstacle. Some provinces have a dedicated number of positions for IMGs and most provinces now allow IMGs to compete directly with Canadian medical graduates for additional placements through the CaRMS match 2nd iteration.

    There may also be restrictions on residency positions based on discipline, with more spots available for family medicine than specialty disciplines. There are vastly more IMG applicants for post–graduate medical training than there are positions. In the first iteration of the 2018 CaRMS match, 379 graduates from international medical schools, , received residency positions through CaRMS out of an applicant pool of 1799 individuals. This means that for many IMGs the chances of securing a residency position without acquiring additional training or repeating medical school are slim.

    Overview of the process:

    Becoming a Doctor in Canada

    The first step is to have their international medical certification documents verified by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for evaluating the competence of medical learners at different stages of their training.

    The second step is to apply and pass the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part I to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC). Canadian medical regulatory authorities may require you to have the LMCC to apply for a medical licence within their province or territory. Visit the Application and eligibility page for the full list of MCCQE Part I requirements.

     

    You must take and pass the National Assessment Collaboration (NAC) Examination if you want to apply to a Canadian residency program. The National Assessment Collaboration (NAC), which reports to the MCC, offers an examination that tests the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for entrance into residency training programs. This national, standardized objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)—known as the NAC OSCE—is offered to IMGs through provincial IMG assessment programs.  The NAC Examination is not required to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada, and  is required to apply to a Canadian residency program,  a pass result may be a prerequisite for eligibility for residency training programs in certain provinces, but  does not guarantee a residency training position in Canada. For further information, refer to MCC website here.


    Statistics on IMGs in Canada:

    A recent survey found that there are 10,500 medical students in Canada and about 3600 Canadians studying medicine abroad1 .

    In 2010, an estimated 3,570 Canadian citizens were studying medicine abroad, many in the Caribbean (56%), Ireland (18%) and Australia (15%), but also in Poland and the Middle East. Most of these students (90%) hope to return to Canada for at least a part of their postgraduate training2.

    In absolute terms, most IMGs practice in Ontario, which offers 200 new training and assessment spots each year for IMGs. This is followed by Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia. Provinces with substantial rural populations rely heavily on IMGs and employ a higher proportion of them relative to Canadian graduates. About 41% of physicians in Newfoundland and Labrador are IMGs, as well as 54% in Saskatchewan3.

    •  

      Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQEI): A one-day, computer-based test that assesses knowledge, clinical skills, and attitudes for entry into supervised clinical practice in postgraduate training programs. (check here)

    • National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination (NAC OSCE): A national, standardized objective structured clinical examination administered by the National Assessment Collaboration that tests the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for entrance into residency training programs.

    Which international medical schools are recognized in Canada?

    There are 17 accredited medical education programs at Canadian faculties of medicine and 147 Accredited MD Programs in the United States. Canadian medical schools are accredited by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS) and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). American medical schools are accredited by the LCME. Accreditation refers to a standards-based, peer-reviewed process of continuous quality assurance/improvement of the medical education program.

    Anyone who completes a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of these accredited Canadian and American programs and wants to then undertake residency training or practise medicine in Canada is considered an international medical graduate (IMG).

    Unless indicated otherwise, Medical degrees obtained from these medical schools are acceptable to the provincial/territorial medical regulatory authorities in Canada, and therefore acceptable to all medical organizations in Canada. For more information about the acceptable medical schools as defined in the Model Standards for Medical Registration in Canada click here.

    For more information about international medical schools are recognized in Canada:

    World Directory of Medical Schools

    Graduates of international medical schools , known as  International Medical Graduates or IMGs, including Canadian citizens may apply to residency programs in Canada, but there are additional steps  (see chart below) they must take and examinations they must pass in order to do so. It is important to note that those who complete MD training outside of the accredited programs in Canada and the US have no guarantee of securing a training position in Canada, let alone in their desired specialty or practice location.

    • Accreditation: A standards-based, peer-reviewed process of continuous quality assurance/improvement of the medical education program.

    • Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS): The committee that ensures that Canadian medical faculties’ Doctor of Medicine (MD) programs meet the expected level of quality in producing future physicians.

    • International medical graduate (IMG): An individual who completed a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of those accredited in Canada and the United States by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.

    • Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME): An accrediting agency for medical education programs leading to the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree: (https://www.aamc.org/members/osr/committees/48814/reports_lcme.html).

    • Residency: The postgraduate program that must be completed after the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree in order to become a specialist in family medicine or another specialty.

    What are the demographics of students admitted to Canadian medical schools?

    The following demographics applied to the 2,951 first-year students who enrolled in Canadian faculties of medicine in 2016/17. The majority were 20 to 25 years old, 58.2% were women in 2016/17.

    The women enrolment in Canadian Faculties of Medicine in 2016/17:                                 

    • 66.3% at Memorial University of Newfoundland
    • 55.0% at Dalhousie University
    • 70.0% at Université Laval
    • 61.5% at Université de Sherbrooke
    • 66.3% at Université de Montréal
    • 53.6% at McGill University
    • 60.2% at University of Ottawa
    • 62.0% at Queen’s University
    • 60.05% at University of Toronto
    • 55.6% at McMaster University
    • 40.9% at Western University
    • 73.4% at Lakehead University/Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)
    • 49.1% at University of Manitoba
    • 50.0% at University of Saskatchewan
    • 55.5% at University of Alberta
    • 55.7% at University of Calgary
    • 53.7% at University of British Columbia
       
    • 90 were permanent residents
    • 25.3% chose French as their language of instruction
      • Université Laval, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Montréal, and University of Ottawa are the only schools that offer French-language instruction
      • University of Ottawa is the only bilingual medical school in Canada
    • Almost 3.5% (101 in total) were not Canadian citizens
    • 11 had a student or diplomatic visa
    • Permanent resident: Someone who has been accepted as a landed immigrant and has the right to live and work in Canada.

    • First-year student: An applicant who is registered and starting his or her first year of medical training.

    • Student or diplomatic visa: A permit that allows an individual to study at an educational institution in Canada for the duration of the program of study.

    Are certain entry positions allocated to specific groups of applicants?

    The provincial governments establish the number of positions available for admission at each faculty of medicine in their jurisdiction. Most of the positions in these annual quotas are reserved for applicants who reside in the faculty’s province (or region), while a certain number of others may be set aside for specific groups of applicants, such as:

    • Aboriginal or Inuit applicants
    • French-speaking applicants
    • applicants wishing to complete a joint MD/PhD program

    The University of Ottawa has a partnership with the Consortium national de formation en santé through which eight entry positions per year are reserved for French-speaking applicants from outside Quebec and Ontario. This promotes the training of healthcare providers in other parts of the country to help improve service to francophone communities across Canada.

    The following table from the Canadian Medical Education Statistics  publication, shows the quota and specific allocation of entry positions at each of Canada’s 17 medical schools.

     Table2b, Geographic Allocation of Places within Quota in Canadian Faculties of Medicine

    Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

    Faculty of Medicine/ProvinceQuotaGeographic Allocation within Quota

    Memorial University NL80Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; 60 residents of Newfoundland and Labrador including up to 3 positiions available for Aboriginal students residing within province; 20 residents from other provinces including: 5 residents from other Canadian Provinces/Non-Canadian;10 residents of New Brunswick; 4 residents of Prince Edward Island; 1 resident of the Yukon.

    Dalhousie UniversityNS108 + 1Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; 99 residents from the Maritimes and 9 from Non-Maritime provinces; 1 additional position is available for a dental student who after completing the MD program plans to specialize in oral maxillofacial surgery. Dalhousie does not have set quotas for Indiginous students; however, an Affirmative Action Statement is used to increase the admission of the number of graduates from underrepresented groups, specifically African Nova Scotian and Indigenous Persons of the Maritime Region. 

    Laval, Université * 218Two hundred and nine (209) from Québec (which includes up to 8 positions available for applicants to the PhD program and up to 8 positions available for university applicants from the labour market);  3 more positions as per the intergovernmental agreement with New-Brunswick;1 position available for an applicant of foreign nationality who holds a study permit; 1 potential position for an applicant from another Canadian province or territory, 2 positions for applicants who wish to pursue their postgraduate studies in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery; and up to 3 positions could be offered to IMGs willing to start with clerkship.

    Sherbrooke, Université de * 199Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; 169 for residents of Québec and 30 for residents from out-of-province. 

    Montréal, Université de * 291Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; 280 from Québec; 3 positions for International Medical Graduates; 3 positions for residents of New Brunswick; 2 positions for Visa Students; and 1 for French-speaking applicants from outside Québec without an intergovernmental agreement, and 2 additional positions for the Canadian Forces.

    McGill University * 175 + 2Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; up to 165 from Québec; up to 11 positions for residents from out-of-province; 1 position for Visa Students; and 2 positions are available for students admitted to the joint Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (MD-OMFS) program.

     QC883 + 2* Up to 4 positions available to eligible First Nations and Inuit / Indigenous applicants who are residents of Québec (maximum quota distributed among the four Québec faculties of medicine)); Up to 4 positions funded by the Canadian Forces Medical Military Training Program (MMTP) (allocated between the 3 Francophone faculties of medicine in Québec).

    Ottawa, University of ** 156 + 8Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; includes up to 7 positions available for Aboriginal students; up to 4 positions available for students in the MD/PhD program. Additional positions include up to 8 positions available for students eligible through the “Consortium national de formation en santé” for Francophone students outside Québec and Ontario.

    Queen's University 100Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; includes up to 4 positions available for Aboriginal Students; up to 3 positions available to students in the MD/PhD program.; and up to10 positions available for the Queen's University Accelerated Route to Medical School (QuARMS) program . Up to 5 positions available for International Students; 

    Toronto, University of 259Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; no quota within regular pool; up to10 positions available for International Students (supernumerary seats).

    McMaster University 203Canadian citizens/permanent residents or Visa Students may apply; includes 3 positions available to students in the MD/PhD program.

    Western University 171Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; includes up to 3 positions available for Aboriginal students; up to 3 positions available for students in the MD/PhD program; up to 1 position available for the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Program.

    Northern Ontario School of Medicine 64Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; 36 to Laurentian Campus, 28 to Lakehead Campus; includes a minimum of 2 positions available for Aboriginal students. 

     ON953 + 8** Positions eligible through the “Consortium national de formation en santé” for Francophone students outside Québec and Ontario.

    Manitoba, University ofMB110Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; 5% of positions available for out-of-province residents.

    Saskatchewan, Univ. ofSK100Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; up to 10 positions available to Aboriginal students and 10 positions available to out-of province applicants.

    Alberta, University of 162Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; at least 85% residents of Alberta; up to 5 positions available for Aboriginal students; up to 10 positions available for students whose permanent residence is deemed as “rural”.

    Calgary, University of 157Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; at least 85% residents of Alberta.

     AB319 

    British Columbia, Univ. ofBC288Canadian citizens/permanent residents may apply; the 288 positions are allocated to four campuses: 192 at the Vancouver Fraser Medical Program; 32 at the Island Medical Program; 32 at the Northern Medical Program; 32 at the Southern Medical Program. A Rural/Remote Suitability tool is also used to assign students to the Northern Medical Program, up to 10 positions at the Southern Medical Program, and up to 2 positions at the Island Medical Program. Up to 29 positions available for out-of-province residents; up to 14 positions available for Aboriginal students; up to 3 positions available for students in the MD/PhD program.

    Total 2841 + 11 


    These figures are valid for 2017/18.  They are subject to change in subsequent years.

    • Quota: The established class size for each academic year in Canadian medical schools. School quotas are set by the province in which they are located.

    What variations exist among provinces with respect to admissions?

    Specific entry criteria for each school vary and should be obtained directly from the individual faculty’s website.

    Differences may exist in the process and costs involved in applying to a particular school. Most medical schools in Canada make it possible for applications to be made directly through the admissions page of their website. In Ontario, application to any of the province’s six medical schools can be done online using the centralized  (OMSAS) Ontario Medical Schools Application Service . Applicants simply submit their completed application and required documentation to OMSAS, which then forwards their files to the selected schools.
     

    For more detailed information on admission requirements for specific faculties of medicine, please consult the admissions pages of their websites, the direct links to which are provided below.

    The following table from Canadian Medical Education Statistics provides information about Canada’s medical schools, including location; language of instruction; number of entering positions; and duration of program.

     Table/Tableau 2a, Information About Canadian Faculties of Medicine

    Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

     

    Province

    Faculty of Medicine

    Class size

    Duration of program

    Language of instruction

    MCAT required?

    Regular1

    Above quota2

    Nfld & Labrador

    Memorial Univ.

    80

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Maritime Provinces

    Dalhousie Univ.

    109 3

    available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Quebec

    Laval, Université

    218 3

    Not available

    4 years

    français

    Non

    Sherbrooke, Univ. de

    199 3

    Not available

    4 years

    français

    Non

    Montréal, Univ. de

    291 3

    Not available

    4/5 years

    français

    Non

    McGill University

    177 3

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes[iii]

    Ontario

    Ottawa, Univ. of

    164 3

    Not available

    4 years

    English/français

    No

    Queen’s University

    100

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Toronto, Univ. of

    259

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    McMaster University

    203

    available

    3 years

    English

    Yes

    Western University

    171

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Northern ON Schl of Med

    64

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    No

    Manitoba

    Manitoba, Univ. of

    110

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Saskatchewan

    Saskatchewan, Univ. of

    100

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes[iv]

    Alberta

    Alberta, University of

    162

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    Calgary, University of

    157

    available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

    British Columbia

    British Columbia, Univ. of

    288

    Not available

    4 years

    English

    Yes

     
    1 Regular quota numbers include positions for foreign students.
    2 Supernumerary/above quota positions are not available to applicants from Canada. They are provided to foreign students only, under contracts with foreign governments or educational institutions to provide medical education on a cost-recovery basis. These positions may be in either first year or at an advanced standing level.
    3 See CMES Table 2b for details.
    4 Only required for international students and for Canadian citizens/permanent residents who hold undergraduate degrees from non-Canadian universities.
    5 Not required for students who have completed the prerequisite courses within Saskatchewan.
    What is the process for applying to a Canadian medical school?

    There are 17 faculties of medicine in Canada, each of which has adapted the application process to its own format. Although similarities exist between the processes followed by these schools, some differences remain. As such, applicants are advised to visit individual faculties’ websites for the most accurate information.

    The suggested requirements of the faculties of medicine of Canada in 2018:

    University

    GPA

    MCAT

    CASPer

    MMI

    Prerequisites

    Memorial University of Newfoundland

    3.85/4.0

    Yes

    No

    Yes

    Six credit hours in English at recognized university or university college

    Dalhousie University

    3.3/3.7

    Yes

    Yes

    N/A

    A bachelors degree is required at time of admission

    Université Laval

    CRC 33.3

    No

    No

    Yes

    Biology (NYA and 401); Chemistry (NYA, NYB and 202);Mathematics (NYA and NYB); Phyiscs (NYA, NYB and NYC)

    Université de Sherbrooke

    CRC33.2

    No

    Yes

    Yes

    If taken at Sherbrooke: Mathematics 103&203; Physics 101,201 &301;Chemistry 101,201 & 202; Biology 911 & 921 or equivalent level courses.

    Université de Montréal

    CRC33.6

    No

    No

    Yes

    If taken at Montreal: Biology 301 and 401 or two courses of human biology; Chemistry 101, 201 and 202; Mathematics 103 and 203; Physics 101, 201 and 301 or equivalent level courses

    McGill University

    3.84/4.0

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    A 4 year Bachelor degree (120 credit) is required at time of admission. Full year with laboratory work in each of general biology,general chemistry and general physics; one semester with laboratory work in organic chemistry. Courses in physiology, biochemistry,cellular and molecular biology and statistics

    University of Ottawa

    3.93/4.0

    No

    Yes

    N/A

    General Biology (with laboratory) and one full year course in Humanities/Social Sciences and the equivalent of two full year courses in the following Chemistries – General Chemistry (with laboratory), Organic Chemistry (with laboratory) and/or Biochemistry (without laboratory)

    Queen’s University

    3.7

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    A minimum of three years full-time university are required

    University of Toronto

    3.96/4.0

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Two full courses in life sciences and one full course in social science or humanities or language

    McMaster University

    3.84/4.0

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Three years (30 credits) of university is required

    Western University

    3.7/4.0

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    4 year undergraduate degree at a recognized university is required

    Lakehead University/Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

    3.8/4.0

    No

    Yes

    N/A

    Two full-course equivalents in Science within their degree program

    University of Manitoba

    3.3/4.0

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Physical Sciences (PS) and Biological Sciences (BS) sub-tests, in a single session

    University of Saskatchewan

    83%/100%

    Yes

    No

    Yes

    4-year Baccalaureate degree is required

    University of Alberta

    3.83/4.0

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    A Baccalaureate degree is required

    University of Calgary

    3.83/4.0

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Two year full-time university/college are required

    University of British Columbia

    85%/100%

    Yes

    No

    Yes

    Strongly Recommended (6 credits each): General Biology;General Chemistry; Organic Chemistry; Biochemistry. Optional: Physics; Statistics; Social Sciences

     

    The general steps of the application process are as follows:

    The general steps of the application process are as follows:

     

    The general steps of the application process (summarized in the chart below) are as follows:

    Step 1 is to meet the specific entry criteria defined in the question “What are the entry criteria for Canadian medical schools?” for the schools to which an application is being made. If the application is accepted, the applicant proceeds to step 2.

    Step 2 requires the applicant to complete an interview. There are different models of interview in Canadian medical schools and a school may use any combination of:

    • The panel interview is a traditional format in which the applicant is interviewed in front of a panel of individuals—usually a mix of community members, faculty representatives, medical students, and practising physicians. There are generally three or four evaluators present.
    • The multiple mini-interview is gaining popularity in Canadian medical schools. It consists of 10 timed stations—each with a different evaluator—at which the applicant must answer a set of predetermined question. A different score is awarded at each station.
    • The CASPer test is an online screening tool designed to evaluate key personal and professional characteristics that make for sucacessful students and graduates.

     

    Université de Sherbrooke may require an extra selection test known as TAAMUS (Test d’aptitude à l’apprentissage de la médecine à l’Université de Sherbrooke) if the applicant is a member of the Canadian Forces or a resident of Quebec, the Atlantic provinces, or western Canada.

    If, after the interview is completed, the school decides that the applicant has the academic and non-academic capabilities to pursue a career in medicine, it proceeds to step 3.

    Step 3 is for the school to send the applicant an offer of admission to its undergraduate medical education program.

    For more information about the application process for Canadian medical schools:

    • Multiple mini-interview: An interview model that consists of 10 timed and consecutive stations, where the selected applicant must answer one question per station. Each station has a different evaluator.

    • Panel interview: A traditional interview format whereby the selected applicant sits in front of a panel, often composed of a combination of community members, faculty representatives, medical students, and practising physicians.

    • TAAMUS (Test d’aptitude à l’apprentissage de la médecine à l’Université de Sherbrooke): An aptitude test administered to certain medical school applicants at Université de Sherbrooke.

    • Undergraduate medical education (UGME) program: A three- to four-year university program during which a student completes the academic and clinical requirements for a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.

    What is the likelihood of being accepted into a Canadian medical school? How many times does the average student apply before being accepted?
    Receiving admission into a Canadian medical school is a very competitive process. There is an increasing number of applicants every year, while the number of positions available for entry does not increase significantly.

    Applicant success rates by Canadian medical school

    University/Province

    Percentage of applicants who received an offer of admission and were registered at the university in 2016/17

    Memorial University of Newfoundland

    11.6%

    Dalhousie University

    &&9.9%

    Université Laval

    9.3%

    Université de Sherbrooke

    7.3%

    Université de Montréal

    10.1%

    McGill University

    &7.3%

    University of Ottawa

    4.2%

    Queen’s University

    2.4%

    University of Toronto

    not reported

    McMaster University

    &4.1%

    Western University

    6.3%

    Lakehead University/Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

    3.0%

    University of Manitoba

    11.2%

    University of Saskatchewan

    12.5%

    University of Alberta

    12.7%

    University of Calgary

    12.5%

    University of British Columbia

    13.4%

    &

    In 2016/17 Faculties received 37,684 applications from 13,690 applicants to fill the 2951 first year seats available. Schools made a total of 4188 offers (some applicants received multiple offers).& Overall 20% of applicants received at least one offer (CMES Table 76).

    &

    • Admission into a Canadian medical school: An applicant must receive and accept an offer of admission into a medical school in order to be registered in year one of its medical program.
    • success rate: The chance of an applicant being admitted into a Doctor of Medicine (MD) program.
    How many entry positions are available for Canadian medical schools?

    There are 17 accredited faculties of medicine in Canada, distributed geographically across the country. The following table indicates the funded quota positions available at each of these schools over the past four years. Some schools have joint programs such as MD/PhD.

    Medical Schools in Canada

    2014/15

    2015/16

    2016/17

    2017/18

    Memorial University of Newfoundland

    80

    80

    80

    80

    Dalhousie University

    109

    109

    109

    109

    Université Laval

    233

    228

    224

    218

    Université de Sherbrooke

    209

    207

    204

    199

    Université de Montréal

    288

    300

    299

    291

    McGill University

    184

    184

    183

    177

    University of Ottawa

    156

    164

    164

    164

    Queen’s University

    100

    100

    100

    100

    University of Toronto

    259

    259

    259

    259

    McMaster University

    203

    203

    203

    203

    University of Western Ontario

    171

    171

    171

    171

    Lakehead University/

    Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

    64

    64

    64

    64

    University of Manitoba

    110

    110

    110

    110

    University of Saskatchewan

    100

    100

    100

    100

    University of Alberta

    162

    162

    162

    162

    University of Calgary

    155

    158

    155

    157

    University of British Columbia

    288

    288

    288

    288

    TOTAL

    2,871

    2,887

    2,875

    2,852

    • Accredited faculties of medicine in Canada: The Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS) in Canada and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in the United States are responsible for accreditation of the 17 faculties of medicine in Canada. CACMS ensures that Canadian medical faculties’ Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree programs meet the quality expected when producing future physicians.

    I'm A Medical Student

    How many residency positions are there in each specialty?

    The Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) website is an excellent source of data on residency positions in Canada. CaRMS data, which are updated annually, include detailed data tables on residency position in each specialty https://www.carms.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/2018-carms-forum.pdf. Table 12 shows the quota offered to Canadian medical graduate applicants by discipline and Table 14, the dedicated quota offered to international medical graduate applicants by discipline.

    Another useful source of current data on this topic can be found in Table G-1 of the CAPER  Annual Census  which shows first year Canadian citizen/permanent resident trainees by type of program and faculty of training.

    For more information on how the match process works, see the CaRMS website The Match - how it works.

    What resources are available to help students decide what specialties to consider?

    There are many resources available to help students think through their decision about which specialty to pursue. The following are some suggestions:

    • Visit student affairs offices to discuss options and explore relevant resources
    • Check out the 38 Canadian Specialty Profiles on the Canadian Medical Association website
    • Review the information on specialties on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website: here
    • Find out more about family medicine as a career through family medicine interest groupsstudent-run groups at each university that organize clinical skills sessions and information seminars on the subject—on the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website
    • Check out the Association of American Medical Colleges Careers in Medicine tool
    • Talk to professors, teachers, preceptors, and mentors about what it is like to be a specialist
    • Shadow faculty members

     

    What tools are available to help medical students choose their electives?
    What are the current practice patterns in various disciplines and what can be expected in terms of work setting, hours, case load, and patients?

    Choosing a discipline of practice can be challenging. Since there are many factors to consider in making the best possible decision, starting early is important. There will be many opportunities over the course of a learner’s training to discuss work expectations with experienced practitioners from various practice settings. Many schools also offer integrated mentorship programs to support learners in their decision-making process.  

    Every faculty of medicine has a student affairs office that offers career counselling and access to a wide variety of useful resources—both in person and online.

    For more information by specialty:

    • The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has a section of its website devoted to information on specialty training requirements, training objectives, the accreditation processes, and more. The portal is categorized by specialty, subspecialty, special programs, and the areas of focused competence (AFC) diploma.
    • The Canadian Medical Association has published profiles of 38 Canadian specialties, each of which provides an overview of setting, income, and satisfaction levels by practice type.
    • The Association of American Medical Colleges publishes its Careers in Medicine newsletter four times a year. The Choices newsletter provides pertinent information about specialty choice, getting into residency, and other important guidance related to medical student career-planning.  

    Most specialties have their own college. Consult their websites for more information.

    For more information about family medicine:

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) offers a variety of information about the pathways to becoming a family physician, resources for medical students interested in family medicine, and more.

    The CFPC has developed a Fact Sheet for Prospective Family Physicians about the field of family medicine that include answers about this field, including salary, training, hours, income and more. 

    How do academic and community-based careers differ? What specialties require an academic setting?

    The development of distributed medical education is making it harder to differentiate between academic careers and community-based careers, as teaching settings are expanding beyond classrooms and university teaching hospitals.  

    Today, many physicians invest time contributing to medical education. General practitioners/family physicians working in community practices in rural and remote regions of our country provide significant contributions to medical education training. Physicians may or may not receive remuneration for their teaching activities.

    Some specialties are, by necessity, limited to specific locations such as tertiary care centres. These fields of practice also require an academic career that contains components of research and education. Other specialties, such as family medicine or paediatrics, allow for a wider set of options (e.g., rural, remote, city centres) and, as such, offer more flexibility in terms of an academic or community-based career.

    For more information about requirements and expectations of various specialties:

      • Academic career: A medical career that comprises multiple roles, such as clinical care, teaching, research, and administrative work. Academic careers were traditionally based in university teaching hospitals. Today, however, many are also community-based.

      • Community-based career: An independent physician practice in a community setting in which the physician may be affiliated to a medical school and involved in teaching and/or research activities.

      • Tertiary care centre: A healthcare centre affiliated with a medical school that provides highly specialized care to patients.

      Beyond residency training, what other learning opportunities exist?

      Sub-specialty residencies are programs of additional medical training undertaken after an initial “core” residency has been completed in a specialty accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). 

      Subspecialty residency training supports sub-specialization in a particular specialty. Subspecialty residents can sometimes practise as physicians in the specialty in which they completed their core (initial)residency (e.g., psychiatry) but cannot practise without supervision in their subspecialty (e.g., child and adolescent psychiatry). This is not always possible, as sometimes training in the core specialty can be double counted towards both the core specialty and sub-specialty training requirements.   Subspecialty residency training programs generally last anywhere from 1 to 3 years.

      Diploma programs are a different type of additional accredited learning opportunity available after core or subspecialty residency training. The RCPSC recognizes an increasing number of Areas of Focused Competence (AFC) programs, also known as Diploma Programs.  These disciplines do not meet the criteria for a subspecialty residency but are accredited by the RCPSC following successful submission of an evaluated portfolio of work in a recognized discipline. An example of this type of training is interventional cardiac catheterization, which can only be undertaken after completion of a core residency in internal medicine and a subspecialty residency in cardiology. AFC programs usually take between 1 and 2 years to complete.

      Sub-specialty residencies and AFC programs are sometimes referred to (incorrectly) as “fellowships.”  In most institutions, true fellowships are unaccredited learning opportunities that allow trainees to gain expertise in a very specialized area of practice. An example would be such areas as “hand surgery”, which might be undertaken by those with core training in Plastic Surgery or Orthopedics. Fellowships are often delivered using an apprenticeship model of training where the trainee is paired with a single of small number of experts in a particular field.  These additional years of “fellowship training” are not to be confused with membership in the RCPSC, which carries the designation “Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada” or “Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada.”

      The specialty of family medicine has additional training that may be offered to residents after completion of residency. These “enhanced skills programs” are accredited under the departments of family medicine at each university. There are national standards for five enhanced skills programs: Emergency Medicine, Palliative Care, Family Practice Anaesthesia, Health Care of the Elderly, and Clinician Scholar. These are known as category 1 programs and are based on a 1 year expected program of study.  Graduates of these programs receive attestation of their completion. Family physicians who complete additional training in any of 5 areas: care of the elderly, palliative care, emergency medicine, family practice anesthesia, and sports medicine will be eligible to receive a Certificate of Added Competency (CAC). Currently, there are 3 ways to achieve a CAC: through completion of extra residency training (a fellowship); through practice experience and professional development; or by acquiring a Certificate of Special Competence in Emergency Medicine. Physicians who complete the CFPC Certification in emergency medicine can choose to use the CFPC(EM) designation, or apply for the CAC in emergency medicine.

      Other learning opportunities may be offered at medical schools to assist recent family medicine graduates and family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community (e.g., Addiction Medicine, Chronic Disease). These learning opportunities are also accredited under the umbrella of enhanced skills programs, to ensure they meet educational standards.  However, the range of skills that may be sought is more broad and flexible.  These programs are known as category 2 programs.

      Fellowships are not necessary for all fields of practice, but some require additional training years to ensure that physicians provide the highest quality and most adapted care to their patients. The more specialized a physician is, the more he or she is limited in terms of practice settings. Highly specialized physicians are often affiliated with teaching hospitals and lead academic careers in which research is an important component of their practice.

      To find out more about RCPSC subspecialty residencies and areas of focused competence, visit the College’s web portal.
      To learn more about enhanced skills programs in family medicine, visit the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website, which describes its accreditation standards for these programs. The Canadian Medical Association website provides a general overview of 38 specialties at Canada. Please note, this work is currently being updated and is not a comprehensive list of specialties in Canada.
       

      • Fellowship: Additional medical training undertaken following the completion of residency in order to become subspecialized in a medical discipline. Fellowship training may be accredited (diploma program) or non-accredited.

      • Enhanced skills programs: Additional accredited training offered to family medicine graduates or family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community.

      What are the practice opportunities per specialty and how would a finishing resident find them?

      It is challenging to obtain accurate information on available practice opportunities in the medical field, as not all are posted and those that exist in academic settings may be hard to identify. At this time, there is no pan-Canadian tool that examines trends in practice opportunities by specialty.

      Since it is the responsibility of individual learners to identify learning and professional opportunities, they should begin researching them as early as possible in the medical education process—before they consider choosing a specialty.

      Learners will benefit throughout their careers from developing a solid network of health professional colleagues, faculty representatives, and classmates. Upon completion of their medical residency programs (or even before), learners are advised to talk to their contacts
      about possible job opportunities and research job listings on various websites. Those interested in an academic career should contact Canadian medical schools to explore career pathways and opportunities.

      The following are useful links to assist students in searching for practice opportunities:

      National websites:

      Canadian Medical Association Career Centre

      Healthcare Careers Opportunities

       

      Provincial and territorial websites:

      Newfoundland & Labrador: Practice Newfoundland Labrador

      Nova Scotia: Physicians Nova Scotia

      Brunswick: Careers in Health Care in New Brunswick

      Prince Edward Island:  Healthcare career Opportunities

      Quebec: Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec.

      Ontario: Health Force Ontario

      Manitoba: MB Healthcare Providers Network

      Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Medical Association

      Alberta: Health Workforce for Alberta[RH1]

      British Columbia: Health Match BC

      Northwest Territories: Practice North

      Nunavut: General Practice Physicians in Nunavut

      Yukon: Yukon MD

      For more information about transitioning into practice:

      What has been the trend in the number of residency positions in recent years?

      The Canadian Post M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) is an excellent source of evidence on trends in residency. As shown in the chart below, there was a 100% increase in the number of PGY-1 trainees in Canada between 2000-01 and 2017-18 to current levels.

      Post MD training by where MD received

       

      First Year Trainees who are Canadian citizens/Permanent residents
      YEAR OF POST-M.D. TRAINING
      BY
      WHERE THE M.D. DEGREE WAS RECEIVED

      Training Year

      Country Where the M.D. Degree was Received

      Canada

      Outside Canada

      Total

      Count

      Row %

      Count

      Row %

      Count

      Row %

      2014-15

      2762

      86.2%

      444

      13.8%

      3206

      100.0%

      2015-16

      2765

      86.6%

      426

      13.4%

      3191

      100.0%

      2016-17

      2798

      87.0%

      417

      13.0%

      3215

      100.0%

      2017-18

      2778

      86.8%

      423

      13.2%

      3201

      100.0%

      Total

      38790

      86.0%

      6310

      14.0%

      45100

      100.0%

       

      The data tables in CAPER’s 2017-18 Census provide an overview of current information on residency across Canada.  Table B1 illustrates the number of residents by field of post-Doctor of Medicine (MD) training and rank (e.g., PGY-1, -2) and Table A1 summarizes the number of residents by field of post-MD training and faculty of medicine.

      The postgraduate medical education (PGME) departments in each of the 17 Canadian faculties of medicine also have information on residency positions and recent trends. It must be noted that trends have no predictive value with regard to future residency positions.

      What is a “return for service” agreement?

      Return of service (ROS) is part of a package of strategies designed to attract physicians to Province’s underserviced communities. you will be sent an agreement describing the terms and conditions associated with the position you have been offered.

      Return of Service agreements provide funding to medical trainees in exchange for their commitment to practice in a designated geographic area for a period of time after completion of their training. These agreements provide different types of monetary incentives and may target undergraduate students, postgraduate trainees, or working physicians. The incentives are often given in the form of bursaries, grants, loan forgiveness, and scholarships. Many ROS programs offer a “buy-out option” allowing borrowers to repay their bursary instead of fulfilling their service commitment.

      Table 1. Comparison of current ROS programs and their terms, by province and territory

       

      NL

      PEI

      NS

      NB

      QC

      ON

      MB

      SK

      AB

      BC

      NT

      NU

      Year of Current Program Origin

      2002

      2000

      2000

      2000

      2001

      2000

      2001

      2000

      2005

      2001

      2000

      2003

      Bursary

       

       

       

       

       

      Grant

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      Loan forgiveness

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      Scholarship

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      Tuition reimbursement

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      Almost all provinces and territories offer – ROS agreements to recruit and retain physicians in underserved areas. ROS agreements may also be put in place if a jurisdiction is supporting or subsidizing an IMG’s assessment process. Although not formally considered an ROS agreement, the Canadian Armed Forces have a similar program. 

      Table 2. Canadian ROS values and return requirements according to province and recipient type 2011/12

      Province

      Recipient Type

      Funding Value per Year

      Service Required (months)

      Service Location Requirements

      NL

      UG4, FM, SP, P

      $25,000

      12

      Area of need (entire province)

      NL

      TF

      Salary/Tuition

      12

      Area of need (entire province)

      PEI

      FM

      $15,000

      12

      Vacancy of greatest need

      PEI

      SP

      $20,000

      12

      Vacancy of greatest need

      NS

      P

      $15,000

      12 + 6*

      Area of need

      NB

      UG3-4

      $6,000

      12

      Rural Health Authority in need

      NB

      FM

      $12,500

      18

      St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

      $25,000

      18

      Outside St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

      NB

      SP

      $20,000

      18

      Rural Health Authority in need

      QC

      UG3-4

      $15,000

      12

      Area of need

      QC

      FM, SP

      $20,000

      12

      Area of need

      ON

      UG4, FM, SP

      $10,000

      12

      Underserved area or undersupplied specialty

      MBa

      UG1-4

      $7,000

      6

      Rural community

      MB

      UG1-4

      $12,000

      6

      Location directed by province

      MB

      UG3**

      $25,000

      12

      Rural community

      MB

      UG4**

      $15,000

      12

      Manitoba community

      MB

      UG4 (RNI)

      $25,000

      12

      Northern remote community – location directed by province

      MB

      FM Res

      $20,000

      12

      Within the province

      MB

      FM Res (NRFMS)

      $50,000

      24

      Northern remote community – location directed by province

      MB

      SP

      $20,000

      12

      Manitoba community

      SK

      UG2-4

      $15,000

      6

      Rural relief (locums)

      8

      Rural community

      12

      Regional centre

      SK

      FM, SP

      $25,000

      6

      Rural relief (locums)

      8

      Rural community

      12

      Regional centre

      AB

      UG1-4 (U of A)

      $11,540

      12

      FM: non-metro, non-regional community; SP: non-metro community

      AB

      UG1-3 (U of C)

      $14,384

      12

      BC

      MD

      33.3% prov. student loans

      12

      Publicly funded facility in underserved area

      NWT

      UG1-4

      $10,000

      6

      Within the territory

      NWT5

      UG1-3

      $13,333

      6

      Within the territory

      NWT

      FM, SP

      $15,000

      6

      Within the territory

      NWT5

      FM, SP

      $15,000

      6

      Within the territory

      NU

      UG1-4

      $25,000

      See FM or SP

      Within the territory

      NU

      FM

      $25.00

      3 years total

      Within the territory

      NU

      SP

      $25,000

      5 years total

      Within the territory

      RFS = Return for service; a Refers to an Aboriginal-specific program; 5 Refers to five-year medical school programs.

      UG = undergraduate, FM = family medicine resident, SP = specialist resident, P = psychiatry resident, MD = practising physician, RNI = Rural/Northern Initiative, NRFMS = Northern/Remote Family Medicine Residency Stream (NRFMS)

      * Physicians return 12 months of service for the first year of funding and 6 months' additional funding.

      ** Will be phased out after 2011–2012 year.

       

      For more information about RFS agreements, please consult the provincial websites listed below:

       

      How are physicians paid in Canada?

      The provincial and territorial governments of Canada are responsible for healthcare services provided within their jurisdiction, including the remuneration of physicians and other healthcare professionals. They work in collaboration with the Government of Canada to administer Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare – under the terms of the Canada Health Act.

      There are two primary methods by which physicians in Canada are paid:

      • Fee-for-service is an arrangement whereby the professional, acting as an independent and private contractor, is paid a set amount for each service provided. In 2015-16, 72% of all clinical payments to Canadian physicians were made using this method1.
      • Alternative clinical payment includes all payment arrangements other than fee-for-service. This method is growing in popularity among new physicians, having increased from 10.6% of total clinical payments in 1999-2000 to 28% in 2015-16. Examples of alternative clinical payment include the following2:
        • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.
        • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.
        • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.
        • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered that are particularly useful for preventive services.
        • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.
        • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and is adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.
        • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

       

      For more information about remuneration methods:

      A profile of physicians in Canada in 2016

      New in Practice Guide, Canadian Medical Association

      2014 Survey Results, National Physician Survey

      Canada’s Health Care System, Health Canada

      National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2017

      • Alternative clinical payments: Payment arrangements by methods other than fee-for-service. Some preferred methods include salaried, by capitation, and blended.

      • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.

      • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.

      • Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare: An insurance program managed by the federal, provincial, and territorial governments that is designed to ensure that all residents have reasonable access to medically necessary hospital and physician services on a prepaid basis. The provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the management, organization, and delivery of health services for their residents.

      • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.

      • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

      • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.

      • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered. They are particularly useful for preventive services.

      How much does a practicing physician earn?

      In 2015-2016, total clinical payments to physicians increased 3.4% over the previous year to $25.7 billion; this is the second-lowest increase in clinical payments since the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) began collecting aggregate alternative payment data in 1999. The average gross clinical payment per physician in 2015-2016 was $339,000; this number remained virtually unchanged from 2014-2015. This year, CIHI combined fee-for-service payment data with detailed alternative payment data and for the first time is able to report average gross clinical payments per physician by specialty for 8 provinces (Alberta and Saskatchewan excluded) and Yukon. The average gross clinical payment to family medicine physicians for these selected jurisdictions combined was just more than $275,000, while the average gross payment per medical specialist was $347,000 and that per surgical specialist was $461,000.

      For more information about remuneration by specialty: National Physician Database, 2015-2016 Data Release

      • Fee-for-service payment: A remuneration method whereby each clinical activity performed by a physician is associated with a billing code established by the provincial or territorial government.

      • Gross clinical payment: The total payment made to a physician, including fee-for-service and alternative payment methods.

      What are regional health authorities?

      Health regions or health authorities are a governance model used by Canada's provincial governments to administer and/or deliver public healthcare to all Canadian residents. Health care is designated a provincial responsibility under the separation of powers in Canada's federal system. Most health regions are organized along geographic boundaries, but some are organized along operational lines (check here). In several provinces, regional health authorities are residents’ employers.

      How much does a resident earn?

      Once learners graduate from the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree program and enter their first postgraduate year (PGY) or residency year (R), they start earning an annual salary. The amount of the salary is determined by the province in which the MD training was completed and its professional residents’ association. It increases with every additional year of residency training completed, as shown in the chart below.

      Amount paid to post-MD trainees in 2017

      Table5. Payment Scales for Post-MD Clinical Trainees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine by Rank and Province of Training.

      Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

      Province of Training

      Contract Period

      Current Remuneration Rates by Rank of Trainee

      Resident
      PGY 1

      Resident
      PGY 2

      Resident
      PGY 3

      Resident
      PGY 4

      Resident
      PGY 5

      Resident
      PGY 6

      Resident
      PGY 7

      Resident
      PGY 8

      Resident
      PGY 9

      Fellow

      Newfoundland & Labrador

      Jun 2016 - Jun 2017

      $60,795

      $65,718

      $70,175

      $74,823

      $79,860

      $85,248

      -

      -

      -

      $90,384

      Maritimes

      Jul 2014 - Jul 2018

      $62,324

      $67,371

      $71,940

      $76,705

      $81,869

      $87,392

      $92,657

      $98,923

      -

      -

      Québec*

      Effective April 1, 2015

      $44,552

      $48,889

      $53,913

      $58,912

      $62,910

      $66,069

      $69,375

      $72,841

      -

      -

      Ontario

      Jul 2017 - Jun 2018

      $57,967

      $64,088

      $69,032

      $74,205

      $79,523

      $84,042

      $87,268

      $92,075

      $96,882

      Variable

      Manitoba

      Jul 2014 - Jun 2018

      $57,187

      $64,105

      $68,763

      $74,053

      $79,343

      $84,634

      $89,819

      $96,833

      -

      $84,634

      Saskatchewan*

      Jul 2016 - Jun 2017

      $56,814

      $61,960

      $67,101

      $72,220

      $77,302

      $82,371

      -

      -

      -

      -

      Alberta*

      Jul 2010 - Jul 2015

      $55,073

      $61,066

      $65,849

      $70,637

      $76,624

      $81,411

      $88,037

      $95,207

      -

      Variable

      British Columbia

      Apr 2014 - Mar 2019

      $51,912

      $57,912

      $63,108

      $67,932

      $73,044

      $77,988

      $83,112

      -

      -

      -

       Information available as of September, 2017

      Chief residents and senior residents may receive additional stipends.

        * Currently under negotiation: Laval, Sherbrooke, Montreal, McGill, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Calgary

      • Postgraduate year (PGY): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine degree. PGY-1 is the first year of residency training and commonly starts around July 1st. Postgraduate year is synonymous with residency year.

      • Residency year (R): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. R-1 is the first year of residency training, which commonly starts around July 1st. Residency year is synonymous with postgraduate year.

      • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.

      Do medical students earn money?

      Clerkship stipends vary significantly among provinces. Some do not offer stipends to learners for clerkship, as it is viewed as an educational process rather than a job. Others offer students who undertake Doctor of Medicine (MD) degrees several hundred dollars per month for the duration of their clerkship. This may be in the form of quarterly lump-sum instalments in a student’s final year of medical school. In provinces that do offer clerkship stipends, the stipends are the same for all of the MD education programs in that jurisdiction. It is recommended that students contact the finance and awards office at their particular faculty of interest for more specific details about clerkship stipends.

      Table 7 of the Canadian Medical Education Statistics (CMES) publication (below) illustrates the Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian Faculties of Medicine for 2017/18:

      Table 7 Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian

      Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

       

       

      Province

      Faculty of Medicine

      Number of Clerkship Weeks 2

      Total
      Stipend 1

      Mandatory

      Electives

      Selectives

      Non-Clinical

      Total

      NL

      Memorial University

      48

      12

      12

      7

      79

      $3 150

      NS

      Dalhousie University

      36

      18

      12

      13

      79

      $2 800

      QC

      Laval, Université

      53

      18

      0

      15

      86

      DOES NOT APPLY

      Sherbrooke, Université de

      32

      16

      12

      6

      66

      Montréal, Université de

      52

      14

      6

      7

      79

      McGill University3

      52

      20

      0

      14

      86

      ON

      Ottawa, University of

      52

      18

      0

      10

      80

      $9 000

      Queen's University

      48

      16

      0

      12

      76

      Toronto, University of

      46.4

      13

      8

      9

      76.4

      McMaster University

      46

      17

      0

      6

      69

      Western University

      34

      0

      14

      1

      49

      Northern Ont. School of  Med.4

      30

      0

      0

      0

      30

      MB

      Manitoba, University of

      48

      14

      6

      14

      82

      $5 153

      SK

      Saskatchewan, University of

      48

      24

      0

      14

      86

      $8 269

      AB

      Alberta, University of

      57

      13

      0

      9

      79

      $4 2005

      Calgary, University of

      44

      12

      0

      0

      56

      BC

      British Columbia, Univ. of

      48

      31

      0

      10

      89

      $4 080

      Information available as of September, 2017.

      Notes:

        Mandatory = rotations in specific disciplines which must be completed by each student

        Electives = optional programs which are the choice of students provided the choices are approved

        Selectives = optional programs that may be chosen from a particular set of courses

        Non-clinical = the components vary from one faculty to another; examples are: CaRMS interviews,
                             orientation, examination review, ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) 

      1 Monthly payments are not always disbursed over the full duration of clerkship.

      2 The Faculties of Medicine may offer additional clerkship opportunities such as integrated clerkships which differ in clerkship lengths and educational requirements.

      3 Non-clinical rotations also include 48 weeks Physicianship: Professional and Healer 1 week of Public Health & Preventative Medicine, and 98 weeks Physicianship: Physician Apprentice (year 3 and year 4).

      4 Data reflects 3rd year Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship.  Electives and Selectives follow in 4th year, or occur in the weeks prior to the start of the clerkship.

      5 Stipend includes 12 monthly payments of $350.00 to a maximum of $4,200.00.

       

      How do provincial governments contribute to medical education?

      The costs of medical training in Canada are shared by the provincial governments, individual faculties, and learners. Although medical education subsidies vary by program and province, the provinces make a greater contribution to medical education than learners themselves.

      The provinces also offer a variety of student aid and assistance programs.

      At the post graduate (residency) level the provincial governments fully fund the positions.

      For more information about these programs—and about repayment options for medical students— visit the Student Affairs Office or Financial Aid Office in the appropriate faculty/jurisdiction.

       

      What kind of support is available from the Government of Canada?

      Many students count on government financial assistance to pay for their studies. Applying for government financial assistance could be to your advantage because being approved for this assistance is one of the eligibility criteria for some bursaries. In addition, the loans can remain interest free while you’re a full-time student and you aren’t required to make any payments on them as long as you’re a full-time student in an approved postsecondary program.

      For more information:

      Government assistance page at Universty of Ottawa

       

      Family medicine residents and family physicians who will be practising in rural or remote communities, including communities that provide health services to First Nations, Inuit, and Métis populations, may be eligible to have all or part of their loan forgiven through the  Canada Student Loan forgiveness for family doctors and nurses

      What scholarships are available?

      Scholarships, bursaries, and awards are an excellent way of minimizing educational debt, as they can help reduce the cost of tuition and other school-related expenses. All Canadian medical schools have their own financial aid offices, where learners can obtain a list of scholarships available to them.

      Many resources are available to help learners pay for their medical education. Every faculty of medicine in Canada has a student affairs office that offers financial counselling, see table below. These offices have access to a vast array of resources on a variety of topics of relevance to learners.

      Canadian Medical Schools

      Scholarships and Financial Aid Offices

      Memorial University of Newfoundland

      Office of Student Affairs – Financial Support

      http://www.med.mun.ca/StudentAffairs/Financial-Support.aspx

      Dalhousie University

      Scholarships, Bursaries, and Awards at the Office of Student Affairs

      http://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/student-affairs/financial-support/scholarships-bursaries-awards.html

      Money Matters

      http://www.dal.ca/admissions/money_matters.html

      Université Laval

      Bureau des bourses et l’aide financière (BBAF)

      https://www.fd.ulaval.ca/etudiants-actuels/bourses-et-aide-financiere

      Université de Sherbrooke

      Aide financière

      http://www.usherbrooke.ca/medecine/etudiants/vie-etudiante/bourses-et-aide-financiere/

      Université de Montréal

      Admissions and Program Guide, Scholarships and Funding

      http://med.umontreal.ca/la-communaute/les-etudiants/bureau-daide-aux-etudiants-et-residents-baer/

      McGill University

      Financial Aid

      http://www.mcgill.ca/medadmissions/prospective/financial-aid

      University of Ottawa

      Student Affairs Office, Financial Counselling

      http://www.med.uottawa.ca/Students/StudentAffairs/eng/financial_counselling.html

      Queen’s University

      Office of the University Registrar, Student Awards, Financial Assistance Programs

      http://queensu.ca/studentawards/home

      University of Toronto

      Faculty of Medicine, MD Program, Financial Aid

      http://applymd.utoronto.ca/financial-aid

      McMaster University

      Financial Aid Sources for Medical Students

      https://mdprogram.mcmaster.ca/md-program-admissions/tuition

      Western University

      Undergraduate Medical Education, Financial Matters

      https://www.schulich.uwo.ca/admissions/medicine/financialassistance

      Lakehead University/ Laurentian University (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

      Financial Aid

      https://www.nosm.ca/education/md-program/financial-assistance/

      University of Manitoba

      Student Loans, Bursaries, and Awards

      http://umanitoba.ca/student/fin_awards/

      University of Saskatchewan

      Student and Enrolment Services Division, Student Finance and Awards

      https://teaching.usask.ca/about/units/student-finance-and-awards.php

      University of Alberta

      Support and Wellness for Students and Residents, Financial Assistance

      https://www.ualberta.ca/medicine/programs/support-wellness/undergraduate/financial

      University of Calgary

      MD Program, Financial Aid

      http://www.ucalgary.ca/mdprogram/student-affairs/financial-aid

      University of British Columbia

      Financial Support at the Office of Student Affairs

      http://mdprogram.med.ubc.ca/student-resources/financial-support/

      Canada’s two associations representing medical students provide information on other sources of funding and financial advice on their websites:

      • Scholarships, bursaries, and awards: Grants or payments made to support a learner’s education, awarded on the basis of academic or other achievement. 

      What will it cost to become a doctor?

      The total cost of medical education in Canada may exceed $100,000, if education-related and non-education related expenses are taken into consideration. See  Costs and Funding: How much is tuition at a Canadian medical school? of the fees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine.

       According to AFMC Graduation Questionnaire 82.5% of Canadian medical graduates reported debt directly related to their medical education1.

      Canadian medical graduates reported an average debt of $84,172 for medical school expenses and $80,516 of non-education related debt2.

      Most learners accumulate debt while they are in medical school and pay it off over several years after they have completed their training and entered the workforce.

      • Non-education related debt: Debt related to credit cards, car loans, mortgages, and loans for elective and residency interview expenses.

      • medical school expenses: related to tuition, books, accommodation and other school-related expenses.

      How much is tuition at a Canadian medical school?

      Tuition fees are mandatory fees paid by students to help cover the cost of their education. Although they may appear high, they represent a small portion of the total cost of training to become a physician. The actual costs of medical training in Canada are shared by the provincial governments, medical schools, and students. Medical education subsidies paid by the provincial governments vary both by program and province.

      Tuition fees depend on a number of factors, including the program in which the learner is registered (e.g., MD, MD/PhD), the learner’s place of residence, and whether he or she is a Canadian citizen/permanent resident, foreign student, or foreign student above quota. Other compulsory fees also apply and vary widely from program to program and, in some cases, from campus to campus.

      According to the Canadian Medical Education Statistics (AFMC), the average tuition fee for Canadian Citizen/Permanent Residents for Canadian medical school is $16,798 per year, with Ontario having the highest provincial average at $27,304

      Table3, Tuition Fees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine: Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

      University / Province Regular Quota Tuition Fees  Other Compulsory Fees 3
      Cdn citizen / perm. resident Foreign 1
      Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
      Memorial  University $8,250 $30,000 $1,300 $630
      Dalhousie  University 4 $20,176 not applicable $1,197
      Laval,  Université Québec resident        $3,826 $4,144 $5,101 $2,869 $28,782 $31,208 $38,808 $21,223 $960
      Other $11,658 $12,645 $15,793 $8,883
      Sherbrooke, Université de 5 Québec resident        $4,503 $27,379 $1,060
      Other $11,608
      Montréal, Université de Québec resident        $3,507 $3,746 $5,499 $3,188 $26,824 $28,653 $42,064 $24,385 $1,142 $1,197
      Other $10,857 $11,598 $17,026 $9,870
      McGill  University 6 Québec resident        $5,021 $3,945 $4,065 $2,829 $38,407 $30,177 $31,091 $21,642 $2,208 $2,116 $2,117 $1,808
      Other $15,546 $12,215 $12,585 $8,760
      University of Ottawa $26,970 $26,970 $26,713 $26,459 not applicable $800 $720 $815
      Queen's University 7 $26,827 $26,747 not applicable $1,238 $1,158
      Toronto,  University of 7 St George $24,440 $72,840 $1,749 $1,749 $1,636 $1,634
      Mississauga $2,122 $2,122 $2,009 $1,864
      McMaster  University 8 $27,241   not applicable $960  
      Western University $25,876 not applicable $1,350
      Northern Ont. School of Medicine East Campus $24,600 not applicable $1,099
      West Campus $798 $602
      Manitoba,  University of $9,463 $8,110 not applicable $1,056
      Saskatchewan,  University of $16,642 not applicable $834
      Alberta,  University of $12,044 not applicable $943
      Calgary,  University of $15,012   $125,076 $1,170  
      British Columbia,  University of VFMP Site $17,755 not applicable $1,212 $75 $82
      IMP Site $0 $677 $75 $82
      NMP Site $0 $969 $75 $82
      SMP Site $0 $997 $75 $82

        Information available as of September, 2017

      1 Exemption from paying the foreign differential fee may be granted in some cases. These exemptions are defined by individual provincial government policies.

      2 These fees are determined based on individual contracts with foreign governments or educational institutions to provide medical education on a cost-recovery basis.

       

      3 Other compulsory fees may vary for visa students, for example, comprehensive health care insurance.

       

      4 International applicants are no longer accepted to the medical program.

       

      5 Residents of New Brunswick pay the same tuition fee as Québec residents as a result of an interprovincial government agreement.

       

      6 Health and Dental Insurance is charged once a year in the Fall term for Canadian students. Students from France who are eligible to pay tuition at the non-Quebec Canadian rate should deduct $145 for the SSMU Health Insurance, and add $993 for International Health Insurance. 

       

      7 International students pay a University Health Insurance Premium fee of $612 on top of the regular tuition fees.

       

      8 International students admitted above the regular quota pay a tuition fee of $95,000 and $960 other compulsory fees.

       

       

      • Foreign student: A student from outside Canada who is not a citizen or permanent resident of Canada and has come here for medical training.

      • Foreign student above quota: A medical student from outside Canada for whom no specific entry position has been allotted by a provincial government.

      • Medical education subsidies: Financial contributions given to medical schools by provincial governments to support the training of future physicians.

      • Other compulsory fees: Education-related costs (e.g., student union fees, professional fees, health services) charged by a school.

      How much does it cost to apply to medical school?

      Every Canadian medical school charges a non-refundable application fee to open an applicant file. This fee covers administrative costs related to the selection process and must be received by the school’s fixed deadline in order for the application to be considered. Some programs charge an additional service fee.

      In Ontario, where applications are centralized through the Ontario Medical Schools Application Service (OMSAS), there is a one-time service fee of $220 (CAD) charged by OMSAS that is added to the individual university application fee.

      The only other school that receives its applications from an external service is Memorial University of Newfoundland, which works through the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) Online Admissions Application Service. The service fee associated with this application is $155 (CAD) plus taxes.

      Additional fees:

      Application to any school that requires the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) involves a supplementary fee. In 2016, the MCAT regular examination fee was $305 (USD). AFMC Offers subsidized exam fess via their MCAT Fee Assistance Program:  MCAT Fee Assistance Program

      Francophone universities charge an additional Application Fees, interview fee and Other Service Fees.

      2018 Application Fees (CAD) by University of MD Training source: Admission Requirements Guide, available here: AFMC Admission Requirement Guide

      University / Province

      University Application Fees

      Other Service Fees

      Memorial University of Newfoundland

      $75

      $156.75

      Dalhousie University

      $70

       

      Université Laval

      $84

      $125

      Université de Sherbrooke

      $82

      $125

      Université de Montréal

      $94

      $125

      McGill University

      $154.56

       

      University of Ottawa

      $100

      $220 (Ontario has a one time fee to use their application portal)

       

       

      Queen’s University

      $125

      University of Toronto

      $125

      McMaster University

      $125

      Western University

      $125

      Lakehead University/Laurentian University

      (Northern Ontario School of Medicine)

      $100

      University of Manitoba

      $100

       

      University of Saskatchewan

      $125

       

      University of Alberta

      Current and former U of A students

      $130

       

      New to U of Alberta

      $180

      University of Calgary

      $150

       

      University of British Columbia

       

      Residents of BC with BC transcripts

      $122

       

      Residents of BC with out-of-province transcripts

      $156

       

      Non-Residents of BC

      $180

       

       

      Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) Online Admissions Application Service: The online service through which application may be made for the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree at Memorial University of Newfoundland. (check here)

      I'm Studying Internationally

      How many residency positions are there in each specialty?

      The Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) website is an excellent source of data on residency positions in Canada. CaRMS data, which are updated annually, include detailed data tables on residency position in each specialty https://www.carms.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/2018-carms-forum.pdf. Table 12 shows the quota offered to Canadian medical graduate applicants by discipline and Table 14, the dedicated quota offered to international medical graduate applicants by discipline.

      Another useful source of current data on this topic can be found in Table G-1 of the CAPER  Annual Census  which shows first year Canadian citizen/permanent resident trainees by type of program and faculty of training.

      For more information on how the match process works, see the CaRMS website The Match - how it works.

      What resources are available to help students decide what specialties to consider?

      There are many resources available to help students think through their decision about which specialty to pursue. The following are some suggestions:

      • Visit student affairs offices to discuss options and explore relevant resources
      • Check out the 38 Canadian Specialty Profiles on the Canadian Medical Association website
      • Review the information on specialties on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website: here
      • Find out more about family medicine as a career through family medicine interest groupsstudent-run groups at each university that organize clinical skills sessions and information seminars on the subject—on the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website
      • Check out the Association of American Medical Colleges Careers in Medicine tool
      • Talk to professors, teachers, preceptors, and mentors about what it is like to be a specialist
      • Shadow faculty members

       

      What tools are available to help medical students choose their electives?
      What are the current practice patterns in various disciplines and what can be expected in terms of work setting, hours, case load, and patients?

      Choosing a discipline of practice can be challenging. Since there are many factors to consider in making the best possible decision, starting early is important. There will be many opportunities over the course of a learner’s training to discuss work expectations with experienced practitioners from various practice settings. Many schools also offer integrated mentorship programs to support learners in their decision-making process.  

      Every faculty of medicine has a student affairs office that offers career counselling and access to a wide variety of useful resources—both in person and online.

      For more information by specialty:

      • The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has a section of its website devoted to information on specialty training requirements, training objectives, the accreditation processes, and more. The portal is categorized by specialty, subspecialty, special programs, and the areas of focused competence (AFC) diploma.
      • The Canadian Medical Association has published profiles of 38 Canadian specialties, each of which provides an overview of setting, income, and satisfaction levels by practice type.
      • The Association of American Medical Colleges publishes its Careers in Medicine newsletter four times a year. The Choices newsletter provides pertinent information about specialty choice, getting into residency, and other important guidance related to medical student career-planning.  

      Most specialties have their own college. Consult their websites for more information.

      For more information about family medicine:

      The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) offers a variety of information about the pathways to becoming a family physician, resources for medical students interested in family medicine, and more.

      The CFPC has developed a Fact Sheet for Prospective Family Physicians about the field of family medicine that include answers about this field, including salary, training, hours, income and more. 

      How do academic and community-based careers differ? What specialties require an academic setting?

      The development of distributed medical education is making it harder to differentiate between academic careers and community-based careers, as teaching settings are expanding beyond classrooms and university teaching hospitals.  

      Today, many physicians invest time contributing to medical education. General practitioners/family physicians working in community practices in rural and remote regions of our country provide significant contributions to medical education training. Physicians may or may not receive remuneration for their teaching activities.

      Some specialties are, by necessity, limited to specific locations such as tertiary care centres. These fields of practice also require an academic career that contains components of research and education. Other specialties, such as family medicine or paediatrics, allow for a wider set of options (e.g., rural, remote, city centres) and, as such, offer more flexibility in terms of an academic or community-based career.

      For more information about requirements and expectations of various specialties:

        • Academic career: A medical career that comprises multiple roles, such as clinical care, teaching, research, and administrative work. Academic careers were traditionally based in university teaching hospitals. Today, however, many are also community-based.

        • Community-based career: An independent physician practice in a community setting in which the physician may be affiliated to a medical school and involved in teaching and/or research activities.

        • Tertiary care centre: A healthcare centre affiliated with a medical school that provides highly specialized care to patients.

        Beyond residency training, what other learning opportunities exist?

        Sub-specialty residencies are programs of additional medical training undertaken after an initial “core” residency has been completed in a specialty accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). 

        Subspecialty residency training supports sub-specialization in a particular specialty. Subspecialty residents can sometimes practise as physicians in the specialty in which they completed their core (initial)residency (e.g., psychiatry) but cannot practise without supervision in their subspecialty (e.g., child and adolescent psychiatry). This is not always possible, as sometimes training in the core specialty can be double counted towards both the core specialty and sub-specialty training requirements.   Subspecialty residency training programs generally last anywhere from 1 to 3 years.

        Diploma programs are a different type of additional accredited learning opportunity available after core or subspecialty residency training. The RCPSC recognizes an increasing number of Areas of Focused Competence (AFC) programs, also known as Diploma Programs.  These disciplines do not meet the criteria for a subspecialty residency but are accredited by the RCPSC following successful submission of an evaluated portfolio of work in a recognized discipline. An example of this type of training is interventional cardiac catheterization, which can only be undertaken after completion of a core residency in internal medicine and a subspecialty residency in cardiology. AFC programs usually take between 1 and 2 years to complete.

        Sub-specialty residencies and AFC programs are sometimes referred to (incorrectly) as “fellowships.”  In most institutions, true fellowships are unaccredited learning opportunities that allow trainees to gain expertise in a very specialized area of practice. An example would be such areas as “hand surgery”, which might be undertaken by those with core training in Plastic Surgery or Orthopedics. Fellowships are often delivered using an apprenticeship model of training where the trainee is paired with a single of small number of experts in a particular field.  These additional years of “fellowship training” are not to be confused with membership in the RCPSC, which carries the designation “Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada” or “Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada.”

        The specialty of family medicine has additional training that may be offered to residents after completion of residency. These “enhanced skills programs” are accredited under the departments of family medicine at each university. There are national standards for five enhanced skills programs: Emergency Medicine, Palliative Care, Family Practice Anaesthesia, Health Care of the Elderly, and Clinician Scholar. These are known as category 1 programs and are based on a 1 year expected program of study.  Graduates of these programs receive attestation of their completion. Family physicians who complete additional training in any of 5 areas: care of the elderly, palliative care, emergency medicine, family practice anesthesia, and sports medicine will be eligible to receive a Certificate of Added Competency (CAC). Currently, there are 3 ways to achieve a CAC: through completion of extra residency training (a fellowship); through practice experience and professional development; or by acquiring a Certificate of Special Competence in Emergency Medicine. Physicians who complete the CFPC Certification in emergency medicine can choose to use the CFPC(EM) designation, or apply for the CAC in emergency medicine.

        Other learning opportunities may be offered at medical schools to assist recent family medicine graduates and family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community (e.g., Addiction Medicine, Chronic Disease). These learning opportunities are also accredited under the umbrella of enhanced skills programs, to ensure they meet educational standards.  However, the range of skills that may be sought is more broad and flexible.  These programs are known as category 2 programs.

        Fellowships are not necessary for all fields of practice, but some require additional training years to ensure that physicians provide the highest quality and most adapted care to their patients. The more specialized a physician is, the more he or she is limited in terms of practice settings. Highly specialized physicians are often affiliated with teaching hospitals and lead academic careers in which research is an important component of their practice.

        To find out more about RCPSC subspecialty residencies and areas of focused competence, visit the College’s web portal.
        To learn more about enhanced skills programs in family medicine, visit the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website, which describes its accreditation standards for these programs. The Canadian Medical Association website provides a general overview of 38 specialties at Canada. Please note, this work is currently being updated and is not a comprehensive list of specialties in Canada.
         

        • Fellowship: Additional medical training undertaken following the completion of residency in order to become subspecialized in a medical discipline. Fellowship training may be accredited (diploma program) or non-accredited.

        • Enhanced skills programs: Additional accredited training offered to family medicine graduates or family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community.

        What are the practice opportunities per specialty and how would a finishing resident find them?

        It is challenging to obtain accurate information on available practice opportunities in the medical field, as not all are posted and those that exist in academic settings may be hard to identify. At this time, there is no pan-Canadian tool that examines trends in practice opportunities by specialty.

        Since it is the responsibility of individual learners to identify learning and professional opportunities, they should begin researching them as early as possible in the medical education process—before they consider choosing a specialty.

        Learners will benefit throughout their careers from developing a solid network of health professional colleagues, faculty representatives, and classmates. Upon completion of their medical residency programs (or even before), learners are advised to talk to their contacts
        about possible job opportunities and research job listings on various websites. Those interested in an academic career should contact Canadian medical schools to explore career pathways and opportunities.

        The following are useful links to assist students in searching for practice opportunities:

        National websites:

        Canadian Medical Association Career Centre

        Healthcare Careers Opportunities

         

        Provincial and territorial websites:

        Newfoundland & Labrador: Practice Newfoundland Labrador

        Nova Scotia: Physicians Nova Scotia

        Brunswick: Careers in Health Care in New Brunswick

        Prince Edward Island:  Healthcare career Opportunities

        Quebec: Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec.

        Ontario: Health Force Ontario

        Manitoba: MB Healthcare Providers Network

        Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Medical Association

        Alberta: Health Workforce for Alberta[RH1]

        British Columbia: Health Match BC

        Northwest Territories: Practice North

        Nunavut: General Practice Physicians in Nunavut

        Yukon: Yukon MD

        For more information about transitioning into practice:

        What has been the trend in the number of residency positions in recent years?

        The Canadian Post M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) is an excellent source of evidence on trends in residency. As shown in the chart below, there was a 100% increase in the number of PGY-1 trainees in Canada between 2000-01 and 2017-18 to current levels.

        Post MD training by where MD received

         

        First Year Trainees who are Canadian citizens/Permanent residents
        YEAR OF POST-M.D. TRAINING
        BY
        WHERE THE M.D. DEGREE WAS RECEIVED

        Training Year

        Country Where the M.D. Degree was Received

        Canada

        Outside Canada

        Total

        Count

        Row %

        Count

        Row %

        Count

        Row %

        2014-15

        2762

        86.2%

        444

        13.8%

        3206

        100.0%

        2015-16

        2765

        86.6%

        426

        13.4%

        3191

        100.0%

        2016-17

        2798

        87.0%

        417

        13.0%

        3215

        100.0%

        2017-18

        2778

        86.8%

        423

        13.2%

        3201

        100.0%

        Total

        38790

        86.0%

        6310

        14.0%

        45100

        100.0%

         

        The data tables in CAPER’s 2017-18 Census provide an overview of current information on residency across Canada.  Table B1 illustrates the number of residents by field of post-Doctor of Medicine (MD) training and rank (e.g., PGY-1, -2) and Table A1 summarizes the number of residents by field of post-MD training and faculty of medicine.

        The postgraduate medical education (PGME) departments in each of the 17 Canadian faculties of medicine also have information on residency positions and recent trends. It must be noted that trends have no predictive value with regard to future residency positions.

        How does a citizen or permanent resident of Canada who completed a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and post-MD training abroad obtain a licence to practice as a physician in Canada?

        Before returning to Canada, international medical graduates (IMGs) who have completed their Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and post-MD training abroad must complete several steps in order to obtain their licence to practise medicine in Canada.

        Before embarking on this process, IMGs are advised to contact the medical regulatory authority in the province or territory where they wish to practise in order to obtain information about the specific requirements they will have to meet.

        As part of the licensing process, IMGs must undergo assessment by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for assessing every medical school graduate who wishes to practise medicine in Canada. MCC-led assessments are carried out at more than 500 locations worldwide. For more information about this process, Consult MCC website for IMG assessment.

        The College of Family Physicians of Canada also offers an application process for recognition of training and certification within certain approved jurisdictions—including Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. For more information, visit the web site.

        The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada has established a number of routes to certification for specialists and subspecialists, including IMGs. Click here for details.

        Websites of provincial/territorial medical regulatory authorities:

         

        For more information about licensure to practise in Canada:

        • MCC-led assessments: IMGs must undergo assessment by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for assessing every medical school graduate who wishes to practise medicine in Canada. check here

           

        • Medical Regulatory Authorities: The bodies responsible for licensing physicians and monitoring medical practice to safeguard public interest. For a complete list, check here.

           

        How does a citizen or permanent resident of Canada who studied medicine abroad apply for residency training in Canada, and what are the chances of obtaining a position?

        Graduates of international medical schools , known as  Internation Medical Graduates or IMGs, including Canadian citizens  may apply to residency programs in Canada, but there are additional steps they must take and examinations they must pass in order to do so. It is important to note that those who complete MD training outside of the accredited programs in Canada and the US have no guarantee of securing a training position in Canada, let alone in their desired specialty or practice location.

        Learners who complete their Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of Canada and the United States and return to Canada to complete their residency training are considered international medical graduates (IMGs). Before applying for a residency match, they must go through several additional steps. Provinces have different requirements for IMGs wish to enter residency, so it is important to check the provincial regulations.

        NFLD&Labrador

        Practising Medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador

         

        Nova Scotia

        International Medical Graduates Residency in Nova Scotia

         

        Quebec

        IMG practice of medicine in Québec

         

        Ontario

        Qualifying to Practice Medicine in Ontario

         

        Manitoba

        IMG information on practicing in Manitoba
         

        Saskatchewan

        International medical graduates Practising in Saskatchewan

         

        Alberta

        Information for International Medical Graduates (IMGS) in Alberta

         

        B.C

        Resources and information for all International Medical Graduates in BC
         

        And/or

        https://imgbc.med.ubc.ca

        Obtaining a residency position can be the most challenging step for many IMGs. The proportion  of residency positions for IMGs compared to applications is consistently reported as being a major obstacle. Some provinces have a dedicated number of positions for IMGs and most provinces now allow IMGs to compete directly with Canadian medical graduates for additional placements through the CaRMS match 2nd iteration.

        There may also be restrictions on residency positions based on discipline, with more spots available for family medicine than specialty disciplines. There are vastly more IMG applicants for post–graduate medical training than there are positions. In the first iteration of the 2018 CaRMS match, 379 graduates from international medical schools, , received residency positions through CaRMS out of an applicant pool of 1799 individuals. This means that for many IMGs the chances of securing a residency position without acquiring additional training or repeating medical school are slim.

        Overview of the process:

        Becoming a Doctor in Canada

        The first step is to have their international medical certification documents verified by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC), the body responsible for evaluating the competence of medical learners at different stages of their training.

        The second step is to apply and pass the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part I to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC). Canadian medical regulatory authorities may require you to have the LMCC to apply for a medical licence within their province or territory. Visit the Application and eligibility page for the full list of MCCQE Part I requirements.

         

        You must take and pass the National Assessment Collaboration (NAC) Examination if you want to apply to a Canadian residency program. The National Assessment Collaboration (NAC), which reports to the MCC, offers an examination that tests the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for entrance into residency training programs. This national, standardized objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)—known as the NAC OSCE—is offered to IMGs through provincial IMG assessment programs.  The NAC Examination is not required to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada, and  is required to apply to a Canadian residency program,  a pass result may be a prerequisite for eligibility for residency training programs in certain provinces, but  does not guarantee a residency training position in Canada. For further information, refer to MCC website here.


        Statistics on IMGs in Canada:

        A recent survey found that there are 10,500 medical students in Canada and about 3600 Canadians studying medicine abroad1 .

        In 2010, an estimated 3,570 Canadian citizens were studying medicine abroad, many in the Caribbean (56%), Ireland (18%) and Australia (15%), but also in Poland and the Middle East. Most of these students (90%) hope to return to Canada for at least a part of their postgraduate training2.

        In absolute terms, most IMGs practice in Ontario, which offers 200 new training and assessment spots each year for IMGs. This is followed by Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia. Provinces with substantial rural populations rely heavily on IMGs and employ a higher proportion of them relative to Canadian graduates. About 41% of physicians in Newfoundland and Labrador are IMGs, as well as 54% in Saskatchewan3.

        •  

          Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQEI): A one-day, computer-based test that assesses knowledge, clinical skills, and attitudes for entry into supervised clinical practice in postgraduate training programs. (check here)

        • National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination (NAC OSCE): A national, standardized objective structured clinical examination administered by the National Assessment Collaboration that tests the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for entrance into residency training programs.

        Which international medical schools are recognized in Canada?

        There are 17 accredited medical education programs at Canadian faculties of medicine and 147 Accredited MD Programs in the United States. Canadian medical schools are accredited by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS) and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). American medical schools are accredited by the LCME. Accreditation refers to a standards-based, peer-reviewed process of continuous quality assurance/improvement of the medical education program.

        Anyone who completes a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of these accredited Canadian and American programs and wants to then undertake residency training or practise medicine in Canada is considered an international medical graduate (IMG).

        Unless indicated otherwise, Medical degrees obtained from these medical schools are acceptable to the provincial/territorial medical regulatory authorities in Canada, and therefore acceptable to all medical organizations in Canada. For more information about the acceptable medical schools as defined in the Model Standards for Medical Registration in Canada click here.

        For more information about international medical schools are recognized in Canada:

        World Directory of Medical Schools

        Graduates of international medical schools , known as  International Medical Graduates or IMGs, including Canadian citizens may apply to residency programs in Canada, but there are additional steps  (see chart below) they must take and examinations they must pass in order to do so. It is important to note that those who complete MD training outside of the accredited programs in Canada and the US have no guarantee of securing a training position in Canada, let alone in their desired specialty or practice location.

        • Accreditation: A standards-based, peer-reviewed process of continuous quality assurance/improvement of the medical education program.

        • Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS): The committee that ensures that Canadian medical faculties’ Doctor of Medicine (MD) programs meet the expected level of quality in producing future physicians.

        • International medical graduate (IMG): An individual who completed a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree outside of those accredited in Canada and the United States by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.

        • Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME): An accrediting agency for medical education programs leading to the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree: (https://www.aamc.org/members/osr/committees/48814/reports_lcme.html).

        • Residency: The postgraduate program that must be completed after the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree in order to become a specialist in family medicine or another specialty.

        I'm A Resident

        How many residency positions are there in each specialty?

        The Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) website is an excellent source of data on residency positions in Canada. CaRMS data, which are updated annually, include detailed data tables on residency position in each specialty https://www.carms.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/2018-carms-forum.pdf. Table 12 shows the quota offered to Canadian medical graduate applicants by discipline and Table 14, the dedicated quota offered to international medical graduate applicants by discipline.

        Another useful source of current data on this topic can be found in Table G-1 of the CAPER  Annual Census  which shows first year Canadian citizen/permanent resident trainees by type of program and faculty of training.

        For more information on how the match process works, see the CaRMS website The Match - how it works.

        What resources are available to help students decide what specialties to consider?

        There are many resources available to help students think through their decision about which specialty to pursue. The following are some suggestions:

        • Visit student affairs offices to discuss options and explore relevant resources
        • Check out the 38 Canadian Specialty Profiles on the Canadian Medical Association website
        • Review the information on specialties on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website: here
        • Find out more about family medicine as a career through family medicine interest groupsstudent-run groups at each university that organize clinical skills sessions and information seminars on the subject—on the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website
        • Check out the Association of American Medical Colleges Careers in Medicine tool
        • Talk to professors, teachers, preceptors, and mentors about what it is like to be a specialist
        • Shadow faculty members

         

        What tools are available to help medical students choose their electives?
        What are the current practice patterns in various disciplines and what can be expected in terms of work setting, hours, case load, and patients?

        Choosing a discipline of practice can be challenging. Since there are many factors to consider in making the best possible decision, starting early is important. There will be many opportunities over the course of a learner’s training to discuss work expectations with experienced practitioners from various practice settings. Many schools also offer integrated mentorship programs to support learners in their decision-making process.  

        Every faculty of medicine has a student affairs office that offers career counselling and access to a wide variety of useful resources—both in person and online.

        For more information by specialty:

        • The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has a section of its website devoted to information on specialty training requirements, training objectives, the accreditation processes, and more. The portal is categorized by specialty, subspecialty, special programs, and the areas of focused competence (AFC) diploma.
        • The Canadian Medical Association has published profiles of 38 Canadian specialties, each of which provides an overview of setting, income, and satisfaction levels by practice type.
        • The Association of American Medical Colleges publishes its Careers in Medicine newsletter four times a year. The Choices newsletter provides pertinent information about specialty choice, getting into residency, and other important guidance related to medical student career-planning.  

        Most specialties have their own college. Consult their websites for more information.

        For more information about family medicine:

        The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) offers a variety of information about the pathways to becoming a family physician, resources for medical students interested in family medicine, and more.

        The CFPC has developed a Fact Sheet for Prospective Family Physicians about the field of family medicine that include answers about this field, including salary, training, hours, income and more. 

        How do academic and community-based careers differ? What specialties require an academic setting?

        The development of distributed medical education is making it harder to differentiate between academic careers and community-based careers, as teaching settings are expanding beyond classrooms and university teaching hospitals.  

        Today, many physicians invest time contributing to medical education. General practitioners/family physicians working in community practices in rural and remote regions of our country provide significant contributions to medical education training. Physicians may or may not receive remuneration for their teaching activities.

        Some specialties are, by necessity, limited to specific locations such as tertiary care centres. These fields of practice also require an academic career that contains components of research and education. Other specialties, such as family medicine or paediatrics, allow for a wider set of options (e.g., rural, remote, city centres) and, as such, offer more flexibility in terms of an academic or community-based career.

        For more information about requirements and expectations of various specialties:

          • Academic career: A medical career that comprises multiple roles, such as clinical care, teaching, research, and administrative work. Academic careers were traditionally based in university teaching hospitals. Today, however, many are also community-based.

          • Community-based career: An independent physician practice in a community setting in which the physician may be affiliated to a medical school and involved in teaching and/or research activities.

          • Tertiary care centre: A healthcare centre affiliated with a medical school that provides highly specialized care to patients.

          Beyond residency training, what other learning opportunities exist?

          Sub-specialty residencies are programs of additional medical training undertaken after an initial “core” residency has been completed in a specialty accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). 

          Subspecialty residency training supports sub-specialization in a particular specialty. Subspecialty residents can sometimes practise as physicians in the specialty in which they completed their core (initial)residency (e.g., psychiatry) but cannot practise without supervision in their subspecialty (e.g., child and adolescent psychiatry). This is not always possible, as sometimes training in the core specialty can be double counted towards both the core specialty and sub-specialty training requirements.   Subspecialty residency training programs generally last anywhere from 1 to 3 years.

          Diploma programs are a different type of additional accredited learning opportunity available after core or subspecialty residency training. The RCPSC recognizes an increasing number of Areas of Focused Competence (AFC) programs, also known as Diploma Programs.  These disciplines do not meet the criteria for a subspecialty residency but are accredited by the RCPSC following successful submission of an evaluated portfolio of work in a recognized discipline. An example of this type of training is interventional cardiac catheterization, which can only be undertaken after completion of a core residency in internal medicine and a subspecialty residency in cardiology. AFC programs usually take between 1 and 2 years to complete.

          Sub-specialty residencies and AFC programs are sometimes referred to (incorrectly) as “fellowships.”  In most institutions, true fellowships are unaccredited learning opportunities that allow trainees to gain expertise in a very specialized area of practice. An example would be such areas as “hand surgery”, which might be undertaken by those with core training in Plastic Surgery or Orthopedics. Fellowships are often delivered using an apprenticeship model of training where the trainee is paired with a single of small number of experts in a particular field.  These additional years of “fellowship training” are not to be confused with membership in the RCPSC, which carries the designation “Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada” or “Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada.”

          The specialty of family medicine has additional training that may be offered to residents after completion of residency. These “enhanced skills programs” are accredited under the departments of family medicine at each university. There are national standards for five enhanced skills programs: Emergency Medicine, Palliative Care, Family Practice Anaesthesia, Health Care of the Elderly, and Clinician Scholar. These are known as category 1 programs and are based on a 1 year expected program of study.  Graduates of these programs receive attestation of their completion. Family physicians who complete additional training in any of 5 areas: care of the elderly, palliative care, emergency medicine, family practice anesthesia, and sports medicine will be eligible to receive a Certificate of Added Competency (CAC). Currently, there are 3 ways to achieve a CAC: through completion of extra residency training (a fellowship); through practice experience and professional development; or by acquiring a Certificate of Special Competence in Emergency Medicine. Physicians who complete the CFPC Certification in emergency medicine can choose to use the CFPC(EM) designation, or apply for the CAC in emergency medicine.

          Other learning opportunities may be offered at medical schools to assist recent family medicine graduates and family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community (e.g., Addiction Medicine, Chronic Disease). These learning opportunities are also accredited under the umbrella of enhanced skills programs, to ensure they meet educational standards.  However, the range of skills that may be sought is more broad and flexible.  These programs are known as category 2 programs.

          Fellowships are not necessary for all fields of practice, but some require additional training years to ensure that physicians provide the highest quality and most adapted care to their patients. The more specialized a physician is, the more he or she is limited in terms of practice settings. Highly specialized physicians are often affiliated with teaching hospitals and lead academic careers in which research is an important component of their practice.

          To find out more about RCPSC subspecialty residencies and areas of focused competence, visit the College’s web portal.
          To learn more about enhanced skills programs in family medicine, visit the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s website, which describes its accreditation standards for these programs. The Canadian Medical Association website provides a general overview of 38 specialties at Canada. Please note, this work is currently being updated and is not a comprehensive list of specialties in Canada.
           

          • Fellowship: Additional medical training undertaken following the completion of residency in order to become subspecialized in a medical discipline. Fellowship training may be accredited (diploma program) or non-accredited.

          • Enhanced skills programs: Additional accredited training offered to family medicine graduates or family physicians in practice who want to enhance a particular skill required in their community.

          What are the practice opportunities per specialty and how would a finishing resident find them?

          It is challenging to obtain accurate information on available practice opportunities in the medical field, as not all are posted and those that exist in academic settings may be hard to identify. At this time, there is no pan-Canadian tool that examines trends in practice opportunities by specialty.

          Since it is the responsibility of individual learners to identify learning and professional opportunities, they should begin researching them as early as possible in the medical education process—before they consider choosing a specialty.

          Learners will benefit throughout their careers from developing a solid network of health professional colleagues, faculty representatives, and classmates. Upon completion of their medical residency programs (or even before), learners are advised to talk to their contacts
          about possible job opportunities and research job listings on various websites. Those interested in an academic career should contact Canadian medical schools to explore career pathways and opportunities.

          The following are useful links to assist students in searching for practice opportunities:

          National websites:

          Canadian Medical Association Career Centre

          Healthcare Careers Opportunities

           

          Provincial and territorial websites:

          Newfoundland & Labrador: Practice Newfoundland Labrador

          Nova Scotia: Physicians Nova Scotia

          Brunswick: Careers in Health Care in New Brunswick

          Prince Edward Island:  Healthcare career Opportunities

          Quebec: Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec.

          Ontario: Health Force Ontario

          Manitoba: MB Healthcare Providers Network

          Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Medical Association

          Alberta: Health Workforce for Alberta[RH1]

          British Columbia: Health Match BC

          Northwest Territories: Practice North

          Nunavut: General Practice Physicians in Nunavut

          Yukon: Yukon MD

          For more information about transitioning into practice:

          What has been the trend in the number of residency positions in recent years?

          The Canadian Post M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) is an excellent source of evidence on trends in residency. As shown in the chart below, there was a 100% increase in the number of PGY-1 trainees in Canada between 2000-01 and 2017-18 to current levels.

          Post MD training by where MD received

           

          First Year Trainees who are Canadian citizens/Permanent residents
          YEAR OF POST-M.D. TRAINING
          BY
          WHERE THE M.D. DEGREE WAS RECEIVED

          Training Year

          Country Where the M.D. Degree was Received

          Canada

          Outside Canada

          Total

          Count

          Row %

          Count

          Row %

          Count

          Row %

          2014-15

          2762

          86.2%

          444

          13.8%

          3206

          100.0%

          2015-16

          2765

          86.6%

          426

          13.4%

          3191

          100.0%

          2016-17

          2798

          87.0%

          417

          13.0%

          3215

          100.0%

          2017-18

          2778

          86.8%

          423

          13.2%

          3201

          100.0%

          Total

          38790

          86.0%

          6310

          14.0%

          45100

          100.0%

           

          The data tables in CAPER’s 2017-18 Census provide an overview of current information on residency across Canada.  Table B1 illustrates the number of residents by field of post-Doctor of Medicine (MD) training and rank (e.g., PGY-1, -2) and Table A1 summarizes the number of residents by field of post-MD training and faculty of medicine.

          The postgraduate medical education (PGME) departments in each of the 17 Canadian faculties of medicine also have information on residency positions and recent trends. It must be noted that trends have no predictive value with regard to future residency positions.

          What is a “return for service” agreement?

          Return of service (ROS) is part of a package of strategies designed to attract physicians to Province’s underserviced communities. you will be sent an agreement describing the terms and conditions associated with the position you have been offered.

          Return of Service agreements provide funding to medical trainees in exchange for their commitment to practice in a designated geographic area for a period of time after completion of their training. These agreements provide different types of monetary incentives and may target undergraduate students, postgraduate trainees, or working physicians. The incentives are often given in the form of bursaries, grants, loan forgiveness, and scholarships. Many ROS programs offer a “buy-out option” allowing borrowers to repay their bursary instead of fulfilling their service commitment.

          Table 1. Comparison of current ROS programs and their terms, by province and territory

           

          NL

          PEI

          NS

          NB

          QC

          ON

          MB

          SK

          AB

          BC

          NT

          NU

          Year of Current Program Origin

          2002

          2000

          2000

          2000

          2001

          2000

          2001

          2000

          2005

          2001

          2000

          2003

          Bursary

           

           

           

           

           

          Grant

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

          Loan forgiveness

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

          Scholarship

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

          Tuition reimbursement

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

          Almost all provinces and territories offer – ROS agreements to recruit and retain physicians in underserved areas. ROS agreements may also be put in place if a jurisdiction is supporting or subsidizing an IMG’s assessment process. Although not formally considered an ROS agreement, the Canadian Armed Forces have a similar program. 

          Table 2. Canadian ROS values and return requirements according to province and recipient type 2011/12

          Province

          Recipient Type

          Funding Value per Year

          Service Required (months)

          Service Location Requirements

          NL

          UG4, FM, SP, P

          $25,000

          12

          Area of need (entire province)

          NL

          TF

          Salary/Tuition

          12

          Area of need (entire province)

          PEI

          FM

          $15,000

          12

          Vacancy of greatest need

          PEI

          SP

          $20,000

          12

          Vacancy of greatest need

          NS

          P

          $15,000

          12 + 6*

          Area of need

          NB

          UG3-4

          $6,000

          12

          Rural Health Authority in need

          NB

          FM

          $12,500

          18

          St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

          $25,000

          18

          Outside St. John, Moncton, Fredericton

          NB

          SP

          $20,000

          18

          Rural Health Authority in need

          QC

          UG3-4

          $15,000

          12

          Area of need

          QC

          FM, SP

          $20,000

          12

          Area of need

          ON

          UG4, FM, SP

          $10,000

          12

          Underserved area or undersupplied specialty

          MBa

          UG1-4

          $7,000

          6

          Rural community

          MB

          UG1-4

          $12,000

          6

          Location directed by province

          MB

          UG3**

          $25,000

          12

          Rural community

          MB

          UG4**

          $15,000

          12

          Manitoba community

          MB

          UG4 (RNI)

          $25,000

          12

          Northern remote community – location directed by province

          MB

          FM Res

          $20,000

          12

          Within the province

          MB

          FM Res (NRFMS)

          $50,000

          24

          Northern remote community – location directed by province

          MB

          SP

          $20,000

          12

          Manitoba community

          SK

          UG2-4

          $15,000

          6

          Rural relief (locums)

          8

          Rural community

          12

          Regional centre

          SK

          FM, SP

          $25,000

          6

          Rural relief (locums)

          8

          Rural community

          12

          Regional centre

          AB

          UG1-4 (U of A)

          $11,540

          12

          FM: non-metro, non-regional community; SP: non-metro community

          AB

          UG1-3 (U of C)

          $14,384

          12

          BC

          MD

          33.3% prov. student loans

          12

          Publicly funded facility in underserved area

          NWT

          UG1-4

          $10,000

          6

          Within the territory

          NWT5

          UG1-3

          $13,333

          6

          Within the territory

          NWT

          FM, SP

          $15,000

          6

          Within the territory

          NWT5

          FM, SP

          $15,000

          6

          Within the territory

          NU

          UG1-4

          $25,000

          See FM or SP

          Within the territory

          NU

          FM

          $25.00

          3 years total

          Within the territory

          NU

          SP

          $25,000

          5 years total

          Within the territory

          RFS = Return for service; a Refers to an Aboriginal-specific program; 5 Refers to five-year medical school programs.

          UG = undergraduate, FM = family medicine resident, SP = specialist resident, P = psychiatry resident, MD = practising physician, RNI = Rural/Northern Initiative, NRFMS = Northern/Remote Family Medicine Residency Stream (NRFMS)

          * Physicians return 12 months of service for the first year of funding and 6 months' additional funding.

          ** Will be phased out after 2011–2012 year.

           

          For more information about RFS agreements, please consult the provincial websites listed below:

           

          How are physicians paid in Canada?

          The provincial and territorial governments of Canada are responsible for healthcare services provided within their jurisdiction, including the remuneration of physicians and other healthcare professionals. They work in collaboration with the Government of Canada to administer Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare – under the terms of the Canada Health Act.

          There are two primary methods by which physicians in Canada are paid:

          • Fee-for-service is an arrangement whereby the professional, acting as an independent and private contractor, is paid a set amount for each service provided. In 2015-16, 72% of all clinical payments to Canadian physicians were made using this method1.
          • Alternative clinical payment includes all payment arrangements other than fee-for-service. This method is growing in popularity among new physicians, having increased from 10.6% of total clinical payments in 1999-2000 to 28% in 2015-16. Examples of alternative clinical payment include the following2:
            • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.
            • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.
            • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.
            • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered that are particularly useful for preventive services.
            • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.
            • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and is adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.
            • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

           

          For more information about remuneration methods:

          A profile of physicians in Canada in 2016

          New in Practice Guide, Canadian Medical Association

          2014 Survey Results, National Physician Survey

          Canada’s Health Care System, Health Canada

          National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2017

          • Alternative clinical payments: Payment arrangements by methods other than fee-for-service. Some preferred methods include salaried, by capitation, and blended.

          • Blended: Payment made using a combination of several remuneration methods. Emerging interdisciplinary primary care practice models (e.g., Family Health Teams in Ontario) combine salary, capitation, and sometimes fee-for-service compensation.

          • Block funding: A funding arrangement commonly used in Canadian hospitals, in which the institution is paid an annual amount to provide services. This amount is generally calculated according to the type and quantity of services provided the previous year and adjusted for changes in demographics, healthcare costs, and inflation.

          • Canada’s Healthcare System – Medicare: An insurance program managed by the federal, provincial, and territorial governments that is designed to ensure that all residents have reasonable access to medically necessary hospital and physician services on a prepaid basis. The provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the management, organization, and delivery of health services for their residents.

          • Capitation: Payment made according to the number of people on a patient list. The fee structure can include a premium for complex cases and may be adjusted for the socio-demographic profile of the patient population.

          • Funding by episode of care: A remuneration method in which fees are scheduled according to the patient’s diagnosis and classified in a way that reflects the average cost of care required for that diagnosis.

          • Retainer: A minimum salary provided to a physician that can be coupled with fee-for-service payments to encourage service provision in areas of lower patient volume.

          • Target payments: Payments made for reaching a target level of services delivered. They are particularly useful for preventive services.

          How much does a practicing physician earn?

          In 2015-2016, total clinical payments to physicians increased 3.4% over the previous year to $25.7 billion; this is the second-lowest increase in clinical payments since the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) began collecting aggregate alternative payment data in 1999. The average gross clinical payment per physician in 2015-2016 was $339,000; this number remained virtually unchanged from 2014-2015. This year, CIHI combined fee-for-service payment data with detailed alternative payment data and for the first time is able to report average gross clinical payments per physician by specialty for 8 provinces (Alberta and Saskatchewan excluded) and Yukon. The average gross clinical payment to family medicine physicians for these selected jurisdictions combined was just more than $275,000, while the average gross payment per medical specialist was $347,000 and that per surgical specialist was $461,000.

          For more information about remuneration by specialty: National Physician Database, 2015-2016 Data Release

          • Fee-for-service payment: A remuneration method whereby each clinical activity performed by a physician is associated with a billing code established by the provincial or territorial government.

          • Gross clinical payment: The total payment made to a physician, including fee-for-service and alternative payment methods.

          What are regional health authorities?

          Health regions or health authorities are a governance model used by Canada's provincial governments to administer and/or deliver public healthcare to all Canadian residents. Health care is designated a provincial responsibility under the separation of powers in Canada's federal system. Most health regions are organized along geographic boundaries, but some are organized along operational lines (check here). In several provinces, regional health authorities are residents’ employers.

          How much does a resident earn?

          Once learners graduate from the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree program and enter their first postgraduate year (PGY) or residency year (R), they start earning an annual salary. The amount of the salary is determined by the province in which the MD training was completed and its professional residents’ association. It increases with every additional year of residency training completed, as shown in the chart below.

          Amount paid to post-MD trainees in 2017

          Table5. Payment Scales for Post-MD Clinical Trainees in Canadian Faculties of Medicine by Rank and Province of Training.

          Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

          Province of Training

          Contract Period

          Current Remuneration Rates by Rank of Trainee

          Resident
          PGY 1

          Resident
          PGY 2

          Resident
          PGY 3

          Resident
          PGY 4

          Resident
          PGY 5

          Resident
          PGY 6

          Resident
          PGY 7

          Resident
          PGY 8

          Resident
          PGY 9

          Fellow

          Newfoundland & Labrador

          Jun 2016 - Jun 2017

          $60,795

          $65,718

          $70,175

          $74,823

          $79,860

          $85,248

          -

          -

          -

          $90,384

          Maritimes

          Jul 2014 - Jul 2018

          $62,324

          $67,371

          $71,940

          $76,705

          $81,869

          $87,392

          $92,657

          $98,923

          -

          -

          Québec*

          Effective April 1, 2015

          $44,552

          $48,889

          $53,913

          $58,912

          $62,910

          $66,069

          $69,375

          $72,841

          -

          -

          Ontario

          Jul 2017 - Jun 2018

          $57,967

          $64,088

          $69,032

          $74,205

          $79,523

          $84,042

          $87,268

          $92,075

          $96,882

          Variable

          Manitoba

          Jul 2014 - Jun 2018

          $57,187

          $64,105

          $68,763

          $74,053

          $79,343

          $84,634

          $89,819

          $96,833

          -

          $84,634

          Saskatchewan*

          Jul 2016 - Jun 2017

          $56,814

          $61,960

          $67,101

          $72,220

          $77,302

          $82,371

          -

          -

          -

          -

          Alberta*

          Jul 2010 - Jul 2015

          $55,073

          $61,066

          $65,849

          $70,637

          $76,624

          $81,411

          $88,037

          $95,207

          -

          Variable

          British Columbia

          Apr 2014 - Mar 2019

          $51,912

          $57,912

          $63,108

          $67,932

          $73,044

          $77,988

          $83,112

          -

          -

          -

           Information available as of September, 2017

          Chief residents and senior residents may receive additional stipends.

            * Currently under negotiation: Laval, Sherbrooke, Montreal, McGill, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Calgary

          • Postgraduate year (PGY): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine degree. PGY-1 is the first year of residency training and commonly starts around July 1st. Postgraduate year is synonymous with residency year.

          • Residency year (R): The year of postgraduate training after completion of the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. R-1 is the first year of residency training, which commonly starts around July 1st. Residency year is synonymous with postgraduate year.

          • Salary: Regular payment made to a professional who is an employee of an organization and is responsible to managers for services provided. In Canada, salaried physicians, although they provide services within institutions, generally receive their salary from the provincial insurer rather than the institution in which they work.

          Do medical students earn money?

          Clerkship stipends vary significantly among provinces. Some do not offer stipends to learners for clerkship, as it is viewed as an educational process rather than a job. Others offer students who undertake Doctor of Medicine (MD) degrees several hundred dollars per month for the duration of their clerkship. This may be in the form of quarterly lump-sum instalments in a student’s final year of medical school. In provinces that do offer clerkship stipends, the stipends are the same for all of the MD education programs in that jurisdiction. It is recommended that students contact the finance and awards office at their particular faculty of interest for more specific details about clerkship stipends.

          Table 7 of the Canadian Medical Education Statistics (CMES) publication (below) illustrates the Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian Faculties of Medicine for 2017/18:

          Table 7 Duration of Clinical Clerkship and Amount of Stipend in Canadian

          Canadian Medical Education Statistics 2017

           

           

          Province

          Faculty of Medicine

          Number of Clerkship Weeks 2

          Total
          Stipend 1

          Mandatory

          Electives

          Selectives

          Non-Clinical

          Total

          NL

          Memorial University

          48

          12

          12

          7

          79

          $3 150

          NS

          Dalhousie University

          36

          18

          12

          13

          79

          $2 800

          QC

          Laval, Université

          53

          18

          0

          15

          86

          DOES NOT APPLY

          Sherbrooke, Université de

          32

          16

          12

          6

          66

          Montréal, Université de

          52

          14

          6

          7

          79

          McGill University3

          52

          20

          0

          14

          86

          ON

          Ottawa, University of

          52

          18

          0

          10

          80

          $9 000

          Queen's University

          48

          16

          0

          12

          76

          Toronto, University of

          46.4

          13

          8

          9

          76.4

          McMaster University

          46

          17

          0

          6

          69

          Western University

          34

          0

          14

          1

          49

          Northern Ont. School of  Med.4

          30

          0

          0

          0

          30

          MB

          Manitoba, University of

          48

          14

          6

          14

          82

          $5 153

          SK

          Saskatchewan, University of

          48

          24

          0

          14

          86

          $8 269

          AB

          Alberta, University of

          57

          13

          0

          9

          79

          $4 2005

          Calgary, University of

          44

          12

          0

          0

          56

          BC

          British Columbia, Univ. of

          48

          31

          0

          10

          89

          $4 080

          Information available as of September, 2017.

          Notes:

            Mandatory = rotations in specific disciplines which must be completed by each student

            Electives = optional programs which are the choice of students provided the choices are approved

            Selectives = optional programs that may be chosen from a particular set of courses

            Non-clinical = the components vary from one faculty to another; examples are: CaRMS interviews,
                                 orientation, examination review, ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) 

          1 Monthly payments are not always disbursed over the full duration of clerkship.

          2 The Faculties of Medicine may offer additional clerkship opportunities such as integrated clerkships which differ in clerkship lengths and educational requirements.

          3 Non-clinical rotations also include 48 weeks Physicianship: Professional and Healer 1 week of Public Health & Preventative Medicine, and 98 weeks Physicianship: Physician Apprentice (year 3 and year 4).

          4 Data reflects 3rd year Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship.  Electives and Selectives follow in 4th year, or occur in the weeks prior to the start of the clerkship.

          5 Stipend includes 12 monthly payments of $350.00 to a maximum of $4,200.00.

           

          What are the entry criteria for Canadian medical schools?

          Canadian faculties of medicine contribute to the sustainability of the healthcare system by training future physicians. As such, they seek applicants who are strong academically yet who also understand the importance of social accountability and its implications on their future practice. Individuals considering a career in medicine must be ready to work in collaboration with other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible care to those in need.

          As detailed in What is the process for applying to a Canadian medical school?, the first step of the application process is to meet the entry criteria of the school to which the application is being made. Since entry criteria vary among the 17 different faculties of medicine in Canada, applicants should consult individual faculty websites for accurate, up-to-date information.

          Generally speaking, entry criteria for Canadian medical schools fall into four main categories:

          Eligibility requirements: Most provinces require at least two years of postsecondary education, while Quebec residents applying to a medical school in that province must complete their CEGEP training. Most schools also request that applicants complete specific basic-science courses before entering their program to prepare them for the study of medicine. Since these prerequisites vary among schools, faculty websites should be consulted for details.

          Academic performance: Medical schools look closely at academic performance when evaluating candidates for potential entry into their programs. Selection committees consider grade point average (GPA) to determine whether applicants have the right study habits and intellectual capacity to pursue medical studies. Some also use Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) results and the (CASPer) Admissions Screening for People Skills results. Once again, faculty websites should be consulted for specific requirements.

          Autobiographical sketch/essay: Applicants have the opportunity to differentiate themselves from other candidates by providing the selection committee with an autobiographical sketch/essay that reflects their personality and accomplishments. It should include a list of such things as volunteer and paid work, research, extra courses, hobbies, sports, awards, scholarships, and other forms of recognition.

          Reference letters: Most Canadian medical schools ask for reference letters, which can come from such individuals as community members, faculty members, or previous employers. These letters give selection committees an additional perspective on the type of medical student an applicant might become.

          Admission requirements of Canadian medical school

          Every year, the AFMC publishes the Admission Requirements of Canadian Faculties of Medicine for students who are interested in pursuing medical studies. This document lists the admission requirements of the 17 medical schools in Canada and includes application statistics from previous years.

          For more detailed information on admission requirements for specific faculties of medicine, please consult the admissions pages of their websites, the direct links to which are provided below.

          ATLANTIC CANADA

           

          QUEBEC

           

          ONTARIO

           

          WESTERN PROVINCES

          • Grade point average (GPA): A measure of an applicant’s performance in his or her academic studies, where the sum of the applicant’s scores is converted to a 4.0 or 4.5 scale.

          • Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (2018). Admission Requirements of Canadian Faculties of Medicine – Admission in 2018, Ottawa: AFMC